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G̲h̲assāniyya

(141 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M. G. S.
, nom donné assez tard par les Sunnites à une attitude murd̲j̲iʾite qu’on associe à Abū Ḥanīfa. Chez al-As̲h̲ʿarī ( Maḳālāt al-Islāmiyyīn, éd. Ritter, I, 138 sq.), Abū Ḥanīfa apparaît comme le chef d’une section des Murd̲j̲iʾites soutenant que l’ īmān est l’affirmation de Dieu et du Prophète, aussi grossièrement qu’ils soient compris; certains de ses disciples, dont G̲h̲assān, se séparent de lui en incluant la vénération dans la notion d’ īmān et en admettant qu’elle puisse se développer. Al-Bag̲h̲dādī (éd. Badr, 191) cite cette dernière différence comme preuve que…

Bāṭiniyya

(1,461 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M. G. S.
, nom donné aux Ismāʿīliens à l’époque médiévale, du fait de l’accent qu’ils mettaient sur le bāṭin, le sens «interne» caché derrière le sens littéral des termes des textes sacrés; et, de façon moins spécifique, à quiconque était accusé de rejeter le sens littéral de ces textes en faveur du bāṭin. A. Parmi les Ismāʿīliens [ q.v.] et d’autres groupes s̲h̲īʿites apparentés, se développa un type distinct de taʾwīl [ q.v.], interprétation des textes, qu’on peut appeler bāṭinī: symbolique ou allégorique par ses méthodes, sectaire dans ses buts, communiqué par degrés, et enfin…

Baḳliyya

(199 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M. G. S.
, nom donné à un groupe de Musulmans dissidents dans le Sawād du bas ʿIrāḳ, associés aux Ḳarmaṭes. Un certain Abū Ḥātim, vers 295/907-8, leur aurait interdit l’ail, le poireau et les navets, aussi bien que l’abattage des animaux, et aurait aboli les pratiques religieuses. Ils se soulevèrent dans la région de Kūfa et de Wāsiṭ sous le commandement de différents chefs, notamment Masʿūd b. Ḥurayt̲h̲ et ʿIsā b. Mūsā, neveu de ʿAbdān, a l’époque de l’expédition de l’Euphrate, menée par Abū Ṭāhir en 31…

al-Ḏj̲ārūdiyya

(236 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M. G. S.
(ou Surḥūbiyya), groupe de S̲h̲īʿites primitifs comptés au nombre des Zaydites [ q.v.] parce qu’ils acceptaient comme imam ¶ n’importe quel ʿAlide fāṭimide à condition qu’il en fût digne, et revendiquaient l’imamat le sabre à la main. Leur principal maître fut l’aveugle Abū l-Ḏj̲ārūd Ziyād b. al-Mund̲h̲ir. qui transmit des ḥadīt̲h̲s de Muḥammad al-Bāḳir et fut surnommé par lui Surhūb «génie aveugle de la mer»; d’autres chefs furent Abū Ḵh̲ālīd Yazīd al-Wāsiṭī et Fuḍayl b. al-Zubayr al-Rassān. Contrairement à d’autres Zaydites des premiers temps, les Ḏj̲…

al-Ḏh̲ammiyya

(253 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M. G. S.
, «les gens du blâme», nom donné par les hérésiographes aux tenants de certaines doctrines suspectes. Al-S̲h̲ahrastānī (134) et al-Maḳrīzī ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ, Būlāḳ 1270, II, 353) l’appliquent à des S̲h̲īʿites qui prétendaient que Muḥammad était à l’origine un représentant de ʿAlī (le prophète véritable), mais qu’il encourut le blâme pour avoir au contraire prêché aux hommes en son propre nom — attitude signalée (sans indication de nom) par al-As̲h̲ʿarī ( Maḳālāt al-islāmiyyīn, éd. Md. Muḥyī l-dīn Abd al-Ḥamīd, Caire 1950, 82) et attribuée aussi à al-S̲h̲almag̲h̲ānī [ q.v.]. Al-Maḳrīzī exp…

Buzurg-ummīd

(263 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M. G. S.
, Kiyā, second dāʿī (1124-1138) des Ismāʿīliens Nizārites à Alamūt [ q.v.]. Il était apparemment allié par mariage aux familles régnantes du Māzandarān. De 495/1102 à 518/1124, il fut le gouverneur ismāʿīlien de Lummasar, forteresse du Rūdbār d’Alamūt. Avec trois autres chefs, il l’avait prise pour le compte de Ḥasan-i sabbāḥ, au moment où les défenseurs de la forteresse avaient rompu leur accord avec les Ismāʿīliens et projeté de faire appel à l ’amīr sald̲j̲ūḳide Nūs̲h̲takīn S̲h̲īrgīr. Employant de force la main-d’oeuvre locale, il reconstruisit la forteresse et la…

Bayān b. Samʿān al-Tamīmī

(389 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, S̲h̲iʿi leader in Kūfa. (Often, improperly, Banān in Nawbak̲h̲tī, al-Nahdī ). He was a dealer in straw. According to Nawbak̲h̲tī. he was a disciple of Ḥamza b. ʿAmmāra, disciple of Ibn Karib, men known for g̲h̲uluww speculation on the imāmate of Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya. He accepted the imāmate of Muḥammad’s son Abū Hās̲h̲im (d. ca. 99/717) [ q.v.] and was hostile to Muḥammad al-Bāḳir. Bayān taught a literalist anthropomorphic interpretation of the Ḳurʾān; e.g., God is a man of light, all whose parts will finally perish except his face (Ḳurʾān xxviii, 88). When on a…

D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ

(1,170 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
(“the trustworthy”), Abū ʿAbd Allāh, son of Muḥammad al-Bāḳir, was transmitter of ḥadīt̲h̲s and the last imām recognized by both Twelver and Ismāʿīlī S̲h̲īʿīs. He was born ¶ in 80/699-700 or 83/702-3 in Medina, his mother, Umm Farwa, being a great-granddaughter of Abū Bakr. He inherited al-Bāḳir’s following in 119/737 (or 114/733); hence during the crucial years of the transition from Umayyad to ʿAbbāsid power he was at the head of those S̲h̲īʿīs who accepted a nonmilitant Fāṭimī imāmate. He lived quietly in Madīna as an authority in ḥadīt̲h̲ and probably in fiḳh ;…

al-D̲h̲ammiyya

(246 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, “the people of the blame”, is a name given by heresiographers to those who held certain disapproved doctrines. S̲h̲ahrastānī (134) and Maḳrīzī ( K̲h̲iṭaṭ , Būlāḳ 1270 A.H., ii, 353) apply it to S̲h̲īʿīs who claimed that Muḥammad was originally an agent of ʿAlī (the real prophet) but blameably summoned men to himself instead—a position noted (without a name) by As̲h̲ʿarī ( Maḳālāt al-Islāmiyyīn , ed. Md. Muḥyī al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd, Cairo 1950, 82), and ascribed also to al-S̲h̲almag̲h̲ānī [ q.v.]. Maḳrīzī explains that ʿAlī was silenced by being given Fāṭima. S̲h̲ahrastānī s…

D̲j̲abr Ibn al-Ḳāsim

(72 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
was a high official of the Fāṭimid Caliphs al-Muʿizz and al-ʿAzīz. On one occasion he was al-ʿAzīz’s vicegerent over Egypt; in 373/984 he replaced Ibn Killīs as vizier for a few weeks, without great success. (M.G.S. Hodgson) Bibliography Ibn al-Ṣayrafī, al-Is̲h̲āra ilā man nāla ’l-wizāra, in BIFAO, Cairo 1925, 90 Walter J. Fischel, Jews in the economic and political life of medieval Islam, London 1937, 58 (there spelled K̲h̲abir).

Buzurg-Ummīd

(240 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, kiya, second dāʿī (1124-1138) at Alamūt [ q.v.] of the Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs. He was evidently related by marriage to the ruling families of Māzandarān. From 495-518/1102-1124 he was Ismāʿīlī governor of Lummasar, a stronghold in the Rūdbār of Alamūt. He with three other chiefs had captured it for Ḥasan-i Ṣabbāḥ when its holders had broken their agreement with the Ismāʿīlīs and had planned to call in the Sald̲j̲ūḳ amīr , Nūs̲h̲tagīn S̲h̲īrgīr. Using local forced labour, he rebuilt it, equipping it with water and fine gardens. There he successful…

al-D̲j̲ārūdiyya

(236 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
(or Surḥūbiyya), a group of the early S̲h̲īʿa, listed as “Zaydī” [ q.v.] because they accepted any Fāṭimid ʿAlid as imām if he were worthy and claimed the imāmate with the sword. Their chief teacher was the blind Abu ’l-D̲j̲ārūd Ziyād b. al-Mund̲h̲ir, who reported ḥadīt̲h̲ from Muḥammad al-Bāḳir and was nicknamed by him “Surḥūb” (blind sea-devil); other leaders were Abū K̲h̲ālid Yazīd al-Wāsiṭī and Fuḍayl b. al-Zubayr al-Rassān. In contrast to other early “Zaydīs”, they rejected Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, not admitting the i…

Bāṭiniyya

(1,469 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, a name given (a) to the Ismāʿīlīs in medieval times, referring to their stress on the bāṭin , the “inward” meaning behind the literal wording of sacred texts; and (b), less specifically, to anyone accused of rejecting the literal meaning of such texts in favour of the bāṭin. (a) Among the Ismāʿīlīs [ q.v.] and some related S̲h̲īʿī groups there developed a distinctive type of taʾwīl [ q.v.], scriptural interpretation, which may be called bāṭinī . It was symbolical or allegoristic in its method, sectarian in its aims, hierarchically imparted, and s…

al-Darazī

(849 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl , was one of a circle of men who founded the Druze religion [see durūz ]. He was not an Arab, and is called Nas̲h̲takīn in the Druze scriptures; according to Nuwayrī (who calls him Anūs̲h̲takīn), he was part Turkish and came from Buk̲h̲ārā. He is said to have come to Egypt in 407 or 408/1017-18 and to have been an Ismāʿīlī dāʿī [see dāʿī and ismāʿīliyya ], in high favour with the Caliph al-Ḥākim, allegedly to the point that high officials had to seek his good graces. He may have held a post in the mint (Ḥamza accuses him of malpractices with coinage). He is said to have been the …

G̲h̲ulāt

(1,721 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
(singular, G̲h̲ālī ), “extremists”, a term of disapproval for individuals accused of exaggeration ( g̲h̲ulū ) in religion. By heresiographers it was applied particularly to those S̲h̲īʿīs [ q.v.] whose doctrines It̲h̲naʿas̲h̲arī Imāmī orthodoxy has regarded as exaggerated in reverence for the imāms or in other ways. In practice, the term has covered all early speculative S̲h̲īʿīs except those later accepted by It̲h̲naʿas̲h̲arī tradition, as well as all later S̲h̲īʿī ¶ groups except Zaydīs, orthodox It̲h̲naʿas̲h̲arīs, and sometimes Ismāʿīlīs. During the early perio…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Sabaʾ

(609 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, reputed founder of the S̲h̲īʿa. Also called Ibn al-Sawdāʾ, Ibn Ḥarb, Ibn Wahb. "Sabaʾ" appears also as Sabāʾ; the name of the associated sect appears as Sabaʾiyya, Sabāʾiyya, or, corrupted, as Sabāyiyya, Sabābiyya. In the Sunnī account he was a Yamanite Jew converted to Islam, who about the time of ʿAlī first introduced the ideas ascribed to the more extreme wing of the S̲h̲īʿa [ g̲h̲ulāt , q.v.]. Especially attributed to him is the exaltation of ʿAlī himself: that ʿAlī stood to Muḥammad as divinely appointed heir, as Joshua did to Moses (the wiṣāya doctrine); tha…

Ḥasan-i Ṣabbāḥ

(647 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, first dāʿī of the Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs at Alamūt. Ḥasan was born at Ḳumm, son of an Imāmī S̲h̲īʿī of Kūfa, ʿAlī b. al-Ṣabbāḥ al-Ḥimyarī. He studied at Rayy and there, sometime after the age of seventeen, was converted to Ismāʿīlism. (The tale of his schoolfellow pact with ʿUmar K̲h̲ayyām and Niẓām al-Mulk, his later enemy, is a fable.) In 464/1071-2 he became a deputy of ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿAṭṭās̲h̲, chief Ismāʿīlī dāʿī in the Sald̲j̲ūḳ domains; in 469/1076-7 he was sent to Egypt, presumably for training, where he remained about three years. (The stories of his conflict there with the wazīr

Ibn Rūḥ

(205 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ḥusayn b. Rūḥ b. Abī Baḥr al-Nawbak̲h̲tī . third safīr or wakīl (305/917-326/938) of the absent twelfth imām of the Twelver S̲h̲īʿīs, during the lesser G̲h̲ayba [ q.v.]. Of the Nawbak̲h̲tī family only on the mother’s side, he was from Ḳumm. He held the title bāb already under Ḥasan ʿAskarī [ q.v.], and transmitted ḥadīt̲h̲s from earlier imāms . Appointed successor by the second safīr, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar al-ʿUmarī, despite some opposition, ¶ he made himself the unquestioned centre of Twelver S̲h̲īʿism at Bag̲h̲dād under al-Muḳtadir. During a time in hiding, h…

G̲h̲assāniyya

(143 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
name given by later Sunnīs to the Murd̲j̲iʾī position associated with Abū Ḥanīfa. In As̲h̲ʿarī ( Maḳālāt al-Islāmiyyīn , ed. Ritter, i, 138 f.), Abū Ḥanīfa appears as head of a section of the Murd̲j̲iʾa asserting that īmān is the affirmation of God and the Prophet, however poorly these are understood; some of his followers, including G̲h̲assān, differ from him in including reverence within ī mān and allowing that it may increase. Al-Bag̲h̲dādī ( Al-farḳ bayn al-firaḳ , ed. Muḥammad Badr, 191) cites this latter difference as proof that G̲h̲assān did …

Baḳliyya

(189 words)

Author(s): Hodgson, M.G.S.
, name given to a group of Muslim dissenters in the Sawād of lower ʿIrāḳ, associated with the Ḳarmaṭians. A certain Abū Ḥātim, about 295/907-8, is said to have forbidden them garlic, leeks, and turnips, as well as the slaughtering of animals, and to have abolished religious observances. They rose in the area of Kūfa and Wāsiṭ under several leaders, notably Masʿūd b. Ḥurayt̲h̲ and ʿĪsā b. Mūsā nephew of ʿAbdān, at the time of Abū Ṭāhir’s Euphrates expedition in 316/928-9. Their white banners bore…
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