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Evangelische Michaelsbruderschaft

(210 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[German Version] (EMB; “Evangelical Brotherhood of [St.] Michael”) was established in 1931 in the Chapel of the Cross in the University Church in Marburg/Lahn by 22 men (including W. Stählin and K.B. Ritter) of various professions as an association within the region of Berneuchen for service to the church. Spiritual battle (Eph 6) was to be waged personally and communally in prayer, Bible reading, and spiritual exercises, on which written and oral reports were given annually. Sacramental renewal of the church was to be guided by the key concepts of leitourgia, martyria, and diakonia. Pr…

Liturgical Space

(468 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[German Version] Every age places different emphases on its understanding and use of space, as we see reflected in varying architectural styles (Church architecture, Church buildings) and theologically defined church building programs. Modern liturgical use of historical architectural spaces (in churches) must follow pertinent regulations in meeting practical liturgical needs, in the Evangelical Church in Germany as formulated in the Evangelisches Gottesdienstbuch (2000), its 2002 supplement, and the guidelines of Der evangelis-¶ che Kirchenraum (1991). For Roman Cat…

Formulas, Liturgical

(466 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[German Version] Christian worship draws from the wealth of forms in the biblical/Judeo-Christian tradition, so that Hebrew and Aramaic acclamations such as Amen, Alleluia, Hosanna, Maranatha have also been preserved and are part of the original liturgical stock alongside formulas of blessing, greeting and confession. Doxologies, e.g. Gloria Patri as a Trinitarian reinforcement at the conclusion of psalms and in Responsories and eulogies (Eulogy) have led both to development in hymn form and also to formulas used in the celebration of the sac…

Rubric

(165 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[German Version] Rubrics (from Lat. ruber, “red”) were originally the headings on Roman legal documents, written in red ink. From the 11th century on, the red titles in ¶ liturgical books were joined by directions for celebrating mass and other forms of worship. Rubrical studies developed as a subdivision of Roman canon law, specifying the precise rules for conducting worship correctly and commenting on them; since Vatican II, this field has been replaced by the General Instruction of the Roman Missal (1970). The Evangelisches Gottesdienstbuch (2000) also includes brief directi…

Liturgical Formulae

(242 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[German Version] Liturgical formulae (see also Formulas, Liturgical) can be brief acclamations consisting of a single word such as amen, formulaic responses and affirmations, or longer penitential or credal formulae. Doxologies (III) and eulogies can ¶ lead to hymnic development as well as sacramental formulae (benedictions, blessings). The significance of such formulae includes both their association with the liturgical tradition of the Jewish covenant people and undivided Christianity and their linguistic role in forming the ide…

Gesture

(802 words)

Author(s): Hochegger, Hermann | Hofhansl, Ernst W.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. In Christian Worship I. Religious Studies Ritual gestures are among the oldest elements of human religious faith and behavior. Prehistoric burial objects, objects from cultic sites and rock paintings (Prehistoric Art) attest to the oldest ritual communication in the history of religion. In order to understand the complex symbolic language of gestures, the rich ritual symbolism of still living non-literate peoples must be analyzed. Especially in the tropical zones…

Sunday

(1,697 words)

Author(s): Bieritz, Karl-Heinrich | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Rinderspacher, Jürgen P.
[German Version] I. History 1. Sunday (Lat. dies solis, Ger. Sonntag, Dutch zondag, Danish Søndag) is the second day of the Greco-Roman planetary week, which displaced the original Roman eight-day week in the 2nd century ce. Influenced by the model of the Jewish seven-day week but also by astrological notions from the Near East, it associated the days of the week with the seven known “planets” (including the sun and moon). As Mithraic religion and the cult of sol invictus (celebrated on Dec 25; introduced by the emperor Aurelian in 274 ce) gained influence, Sunday took on special sign…

Liturgy of the Hours

(3,593 words)

Author(s): Häußling, Angelus A. | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Meßner, Reinhard | Plank, Peter | Kreuels, Matthias
[German Version] I. History – II. Liturgical Practice – III. Catholicism – IV. Orthodox Church – V. Protestantism – VI. Music I. History Praying “at all times” reflects belief in a God who is always present as Lord of every time and all time. The Early Church continued the practice of Israel, but soon enriched the anamnestic remembrance of God's saving work at certain times (deliverance in the morning, preservation of the creation in the evening) with the remembrance of experiences of salvation in the life of th…

Mass

(8,094 words)

Author(s): Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Meßner, Reinhard | Schattauer, Thomas H. | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Historical Development – II. The Roman Mass – III. The Mass and Protestant Worship – IV. Music I. Historical Development The roots of the mass go back to Jewish communal meals and New Testament accounts of Jesus' table fellowship (Eucharist/Communion) with his followers from different backgrounds, including sinners and outsiders. Finally his instruction to “do this in remembrance of me” points to future consummation beyond death. The structure of remembrance ( zakar) means more than just recollection; it brings the salvation wrought through Chr…

Consecration/Ordination/Dedication

(1,422 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard Ludwig | Felmy, Karl Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Germann, Michael
[German Version] I. Catholic Church – II. Orthodox Church – III. Protestantism – IV. Canon Law I. Catholic Church The term consecration is used to render various liturgical and canon law terms: ordinatio, dedicatio, consecratio, benedictio. This demonstrates that the content of the notion of consecration extends broadly. Common is the conviction of faith that an object of earthly reality is connected in a particular way with God and the saving work in Christ. This connection is related to the theology of …

Marriage Ceremonies

(4,074 words)

Author(s): Idelberger, Petra | Grethlein, Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Steck, Wolfgang | Winter, Jörg | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Church History – III. Practical Theology – IV. Liturgics – V. Law – VI. Orthodox Church – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religion In Christendom marriage was considered a secular act until well into the Middle Ages, before it was declared a sacrament in 1184. Many religions view marriage as a religious duty, and nuptial rites (Rites of passage; see III below) often have sacral character, but civil marriages are also obligatory in certain countries. Regulations gover…