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Prostitution

(1,418 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Kirchhoff, Renate
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich P. als »ältestes Gewerbe« ist eine Form der Preisgabe des eigenen Körpers an tendenziell beliebige Personen zum Geschlechtsverkehr aus unterschiedlichen Motiven, wobei hier v.a. der rel. Kontext berücksichtigt werden soll. Sakrale Prostituierte, Frauen wie Männer, konnten an Tempel gebunden sein. Verbreitet war dieses Phänomen im alten westlichen Asien mit Prostituierten für verschiedene Göttinnen, selbst aus dem Jerusalemer Tempel scheinen Prostituier…

Prostitution

(1,583 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Kirchhoff, Renate
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Prostitution, the “oldest profession,” is a form of surrendering one’s own body, tendentially at will, to other people for sex. It can have various motivations, but here we shall consider primarily its religious context. Sacral prostitutes, male and female, have often been associated with temples. The phenomenon was widespread in the ancient Near East, with prostitutes devoted to various goddesses. Even in Jerusalem, prostitutes of both sexes ¶ apparently were not banned from the temple until after the Babylonian Exile (586 bce). According t…

Occultism

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Streib, Heinz
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies Especially in Germany, occultism (from Lat. occultum, “what is hidden [in the mysteries]”) became a collective term for all theories and practices dealing with “extrasensory” and “supernatural” forces after the appearance of H.P. Blavatsky’s theosophy in the 19th century. It differs from spiritualism in explaining spiritualist phenomena as being caused by an unspecified natural force. But since religions, Gnosis, and esotericism a…

Parapsychologie

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Watts, Fraser | Hoheisel, Karl | Streib, Heinz
[English Version] I. Naturwissenschaftlich P. meint das Studium psychischer Phänomene (z.T. als Psi-Phänome bez.) wie etwa außersinnliche Wahrnehmung, Telepathie, Telekinese bzw. Psychokinese, Fernwahrnehmung (remote viewing) oder Hellsehen, Geistheilen, Out-of-Body- und Nahtoderfahrungen. Diesen Phänomenen gemeinsam ist eine (physische) Wirkung über Distanz hinweg, d.h. mentale Verbindungen, die den physikalischen Kausalzusammenhang umgehen. Die wiss. Untersuchung von Psi-Phänomenen stützt sich au…

Parapsychology

(1,636 words)

Author(s): Watts, Fraser | Hoheisel, Karl | Streib, Heinz
[German Version] I. Natural Science – II. Religious Studies – III. Practical Theology I. Natural Science Parapsychology is the study of supranormal psychic phenomena (also known as psy-phenomena) such as extrasensory perception, telepathy, telekinesis or psychokinesis, remote viewing or second sight, spiritual healing, out-of-body and near-death experiences. All these phenomena are (psychic) effects from a distance, and therefore mental connections that obviate physical causal connections. Scientific research i…

House/Household

(1,345 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Ulrich | Hoheisel, Karl | Osiek, Carolyn | Sprondel, Walter M.
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. Religious Studies – III. House Church (in Early Christianity) – IV. Sociology I. Archaeology Functionally, the house was a building which, in contrast to a palace, served as a private dwelling. While circular structures have been identified in prehistoric Palestine, from the Chalcolithic to the Early Bronze Age the broad-room type of house dominated, that is, a one-room and one-floor structure with a single entrance on the long side. In addition, there were sometimes apsidi…

Suizid

(3,540 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Kuhlemann, Frank-Michael | Kuhn, Thomas K. | Aebischer-Crettol, Ebo | Honecker, Martin
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich S. meint die gewaltsame Vernichtung des eigenen Lebens durch eigene Hand, wozu auch Tötung auf Verlangen gehört. Bez. wie »Selbstmord« oder »Freitod« sind obsolet. Kulturelle Traditionen regeln die Zulässigkeit von S. unterschiedlich. In Stammeskulturen bitten Alte und Kranke in der Kalahari oder anderen extrem ariden Regionen Angehörige um den Tod. Könige und Häuptlinge afrikanischer Stammeskulturen müssen, lassen Kriegsglück oder Körperkräfte nach, s…

Suicide

(4,006 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Kuhlemann, Frank-Michael | Kuhn, Thomas K. | Aebischer-Crettol, Ebo | Honecker, Martin
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Suicide is the violent taking of one’s own life by one’s own hand; it also includes voluntary euthanasia or assisted suicide. Cultural traditions vary greatly regarding the admissibility of suicide. In tribal cultures, the aged and infirm in the Kalahari or other extremely arid regions ask their relatives for death. Kings and chiefs in African tribal cultures must kill themselves when the fortunes of war turn against them or they grow frail. To avoid dying in bed…

Vision/Visionsbericht

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Jeremias, Jörg | Reed, Annette Yoshiko | Heininger, Bernhard | Dinzelbacher, Peter | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichVision (V.; von lat. visio, »Sehen, Schau«) bez. die klare Wahrnehmung von Bildern einzelner Gestalten oder langen Sequenzen (auditive [Audition], olfaktorische u.a. Elemente können einfließen) im Wachzustand. V. können sich spontan einstellen oder durch Rhythmen, Askese, Meditation, psychedelische Drogen oder Rituale (Ritus) induziert sein und werden ausnahmslos als von außen ausgelöst erlebt, obwohl entsprechende Außenreize nicht zu verifizieren sind…

Vision/Vision Account

(4,201 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Jeremias, Jörg | Reed, Annette Yoshiko | Heininger, Bernhard | Dinzelbacher, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term vision (from Lat. visio) denotes a clear perception of images of individual scenes or long sequences (some coupled with auditory [Auditory hallucination] or olfactory elements) in a waking state. Visions can arise spontaneously or be induced by rhythms, asceticism, meditation, psychedelic drugs, or rituals (Rite and ritual). They are experienced without exception as coming from without, although related external stimuli cannot be verified. Religiously dispose…

Seele

(8,008 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Seebass, Horst | Gödde, Susanne | Necker, Gerold | Rudolph, Ulrich | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich, religionsgeschichtlich 1.PhänomenologischDie christl.-abendländischen Konnotationen des durch die Forschung von außen an religionsgesch. Befunde herangetragenen Seelenbegriffs sind am weitesten auszuschließen, wenn man S. als Prinzip wahrnehmbarer oder kulturell für wahrnehmbar gehaltener Lebensäußerungen versteht, die allerdings selten unter einem gemeinsamen Oberbegriff zusammengefaßt werden. Deshalb ist es sinnvoll, von einer Vielzahl von S. zu spr…

Soul

(8,968 words)

Author(s): Hoheisel, Karl | Seebass, Horst | Gödde, Susanne | Necker, Gerold | Rudolph, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. Phenomenology Western, Christian connotations of the concept of the soul, imposed on the religio-historical evidence by outside studies, must be generally excluded if the soul is understood as the principle of manifestations of life that are perceptible (or culturally considered to be perceptible), although they are rarely categorized under a common umbrella term. It is therefore reasonable to speak of a multiplicity of souls – for example four among the Ob-Ugrians (Hasenfratz, Einführung, 38–41), five among the Proto-Germanic peoples ( ib…
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