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Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne)" )' returned 9 results. Modify search

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Rabbi

(641 words)

Author(s): Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne)
[German version] (Hebrew 'my master'; Greek ῥαββί/ rhabbí, Latin rabbi). Prior to 70 BC, documented only as a personal form of address (cf. Jo 1:38); in ancient Judaism, the title used for most scholars in Palestine. 'Rabbi' is frequently used to refer to the patriarch Jehuda ha-Nasi, credited with the redaction of the Mishnah (Rabbinical literature). The Babylonian Amoraim were called rab for linguistic reasons. The plural 'rabbinim' ('rabbis') encompasses both groups in their capacity as authors of rabbinical literature. In ancient inscriptions, rab denotes honoured men who…

Usha

(124 words)

Author(s): Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne)
[German version] City in lower Galilee, mentioned in the annals of Sennacherib (a,40); an Israelite settlement in Biblical times is recorded by burial finds. Following the Bar Kochba uprising c. 140 AD the place of a rabbinical synod (Sanhedrin; Synhedrion II.), at which leading scholars of the period, initially without the later patriarch Simon ben Gamaliel, appointed new people to rabbinical positions and issued edicts relating primarily to family law (Song of Songs Rabbah 2,5,3). For a time U. was the seat of the patriarc…

Synagogue

(1,187 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne)
(συναγωγή/ s ynagōgḗ, literally 'bringing together', 'assembly'; Latin synagoga). A Greek word that can refer either to the Jewish congregation or to the place (the building) where the congregation comes together. I. Architecture [German version] A. Definition and function The synagogue building consists of a large rectangular room with benches on some or all of its sides, in front of which columns are built. There is often a throne for the leader of the synagogue and a platform ( bêma) from which the Torah is read. A central element is the shrine housing the Torah scrolls…

Wisdom literature

(3,886 words)

Author(s): Böck, Barbara (Madrid) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | S.SC. | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
I. Ancient Near East [German version] A. Definition When applying the term wisdom literature (WL) to ancient Mesopotamian literature we need to distinguish between the idea of wisdom (Akkadian nēmequ, Sumerian nam.kù.zu, 'precious knowledge') [10; 11] as 'wealth of general human experience' and the concept of wisdom as expertise in a cult. On the one hand, there are a number of non-homogenous, formally different literary genres in which knowledge, procedures, advice and behavioural guidelines are passed on; on the other han…

Wisdom

(3,618 words)

Author(s): Volpi, Franco (Vicenza) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
(σοφία/ sophía, Latin sapientia). I. Greco-Roman [German version] A. General and philosophical concept The Greek noun σοφία/ sophía (Ionic: σοφίη/ sophíē), derived from the adjective σοφός ( sophós), which has been documented since the 6th cent. BC, generally refers to the superior skill and knowledge that distinguishes the expert and artist from the masses and accounts for the high regard in which he is held. The term sophía is used to describe any practical mastery, such as that of a helmsman, master builder, physician, military commander or statesman (cf. Ho…

Chronography

(3,691 words)

Author(s): Rüpke | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
I. General [German version] A. Notions of measuring time Most cultures have some method of measuring time, frequently based on periodical changes within nature or the stars. The oldest of these is the pars-pro-toto method, in which it is not a certain period of time as a whole that is connected, but a regularly recurring phenomenon within that time [1. 9 f.] (e.g. lunar phases). Metaphors of time or the measuring thereof play no great role in antiquity, with the exception of the field of  metrics. Usually, the focus was not on …

World, creation of the

(4,741 words)

Author(s): Merkt, Andreas (Mainz) | Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] I. Definition The term 'creation of the world' ('CW') (κτίσις/ ktísis, Lat. creatio) in the narrower sense should be distinguished from two similar concepts. Unlike 'cosmogony', 'CW' refers to a personal act. Secondly, unlike 'fashioning of the world' in the sense of the craft of a demiourgos [3] (cf. [1]), 'CW' does not mean the mere modelling of existing material in analogy to the creative intervention of an artist, but the absolute bringing-into-being of everything (the universe, i.e. 'the whole', τὰ πάντα/ tà pánta) out of the void. The concept of a creation…

Tolerance

(4,834 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
I. Terminology and philosophy [German version] A. Modern concept The general modern meaning of the word 'tolerance' is the readiness of individuals, groups or states to permit the opinions, ways of life and philosophical and religious convictions of others to 'have validity' alongside their own. Today, the meaning of the word ranges from 'sufferance' (e.g. in the sense of constitutional law: the sufferance of immigrants, diverse confessions, religions) to the emphatic affirmation of the 'different' pheno…

Temple

(5,554 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia The Sumerian term é and the Akkadian term bītu, meaning 'temple' or 'house (of the deity)', were not restricted to 'dwellings' of deities of a particular size or importance. They applied to sanctuaries from small neighbourhood shrines in residential areas to large, freestanding, tall buildings, from one-room cult sites to temple complexes with extensive auxiliary buildings, and they could be used for temples where one or many deities were worshipped. Prehistoric structures are often classified as temples only because apparently they nei…