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Muḥammad Abu ’l-D̲h̲ahab

(557 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, a Mamlūk bey of the Ḳāzdug̲h̲liyya [ q.v.] group. ¶ He had entered the household of Buluṭ Ḳāpān ʿAlī Bey al-Kabīr [ q.v.] by 1174/1760-1, and quickly became his treasurer ( k̲h̲āzindār ). In 1178/1764-5, after returning from Pilgrimage with his master (when he was emancipated), he was elevated to the beylicate, and obtained his nickname from scattering a largesse of gold coins on his appointment. His subsequent career falls into two periods: (1) Until 1185/1771 he was ʿAlī Bey’s principal lieutenant, and…

S̲h̲āfiʿ b. ʿAlī

(314 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
al-ʿAsḳalānī , Nāṣir al-Dīn, historian of Mamlūk Egypt (born D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 649/February-March 1252, died 24 S̲h̲aʿbān 730/12 June 1330). The son of a sister of the chancery clerk Ibn ʿAbd al-Ẓāhir [ q.v.], he served as clerk first Baraka K̲h̲ān b. Baybars, then Ḳalāwūn [ q.v.]. His official career ended when he was blinded by an arrow at the battle of Ḥimṣ (680/1281) [ q.v.], although he claimed to have ¶ played a significant part in the abrogation of the truce with the Latin kingdom (689/1290). He spent his long retirement as a littérateur and bibliophile. …


(836 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( umm durmān ), a t own on the west bank of the Nile at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles (lat. 15°38′ N., long. 32°30′ E.), now linked with Khartoum ( al-k̲h̲urṭūm [ q.v.]) and Khartoum North as the principal conurbation of the Republic of the Sudan. The etymology of the name is unknown, although several fanciful explanations have been given. Omdurman is first mentioned as the village of a holy man, Ḥamad b. Muḥammad al-Mas̲h̲yak̲h̲ī, known as Wad (i.e. Walad) Umm Maryūm (1055-1142/1645-6 to 1729-30) (see Ibn Ḍayf Allāh, Kitāb al-Ṭabaḳāt , ed. Yūsuf Faḍl Ḥasan, 2Khartoum 1974, 174-82…


(2,746 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, the regnal title of five Mamlūk sultans: 1. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳalāwūn, regn . 693/1293-4, 698-708/1299-1309, 709-41/1310-41. 2. al-Nāṣir Aḥmad b. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad, regn. 742-3/1342. 3. al-Nāṣir Ḥasan b. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad, regn. 748-52/1347-51, 755-62/1354-61. 4. al-Nāṣir Farad̲j̲ b. Barḳūḳ, regn. 801-8/1399-1405, 808-15/1405-12. See farad̲j̲ . 5. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳāʾitbāy, regn. 901-4/1496-8. 1. al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳalāwūn (684-741/1285-1341). His mother, As̲h̲lūn K̲h̲ātūn, was the daughter of a Mongol notable, S̲h̲aktāy, who migrated from …


(873 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Abū Saʿīd Sayf al-Dīn al-Nāṣirī al-Muʾayyadī , Mamluk sultan of the Burd̲j̲īs (regn. 19 Ramaḍān 865-10 Rabīʿ I 872/22 June 1461 9 October 1467). By origin a Rūmī (i.e. perhaps a Greek, but the term had a wide range of meanings), he was born ca. 815/1413. Brought as a boy to Egypt by the slave-merchant K̲h̲wād̲j̲ā Nāṣir al-Dīn, he was purchased by the sultan al-Muʾayyad S̲h̲ayk̲h̲, whence his two nisba s. He rose through the grades of promotion of the Royal Mamlūks as k̲h̲āṣṣakī , sāḳī and amīr , finally succeeding al-Muʾayyad Aḥmad b. Īnāl as atābak al-ʿasākir


(5,885 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, a movement in the Egyptian Sudan, launched in 1881 by Muḥammad Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh (Muḥammad al-Mahdī) for the reform of Islam. It had from the outset a political and revolutionary character, being directed against the Turco-Egyptian régime ( al-Turkiyya ), which it overthrew, establishing a territorial state. Under the Mahdī’s successsor, the K̲h̲alīfa ʿAbd Allāh [see ʿabd Allāh b. Muḥammad al-Taʿāʾis̲h̲ī , and K̲h̲alīfa. iv], this developed essentially into a traditional Islamic monarchy until its existence was ¶ terminated by the Anglo-Egyptian reconquest (1896-8). 1. Mahdis…

D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳāriyya

(627 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, (alternatively Faḳāriyya , Zulfaḳāriyya ); a Mamlūk household and political faction in Egypt during the 17th and 18th centuries. (1) Origin and first ascendancy. The eponymous founder of the household, D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār Bey, is a shadowy figure, who seems to have flourished in the first third of the 17th century, but is not mentioned by contemporary chroniclers. The account (in Ḏj̲abartī, ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-Āt̲h̲ār , i, 21-3) which makes D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār and the rival eponym, Ḳāsim, contemporaries of sultan Selīm I is legendary. The political importance of the Faḳāriyya began with the amīr al-…

K̲h̲āʾir Beg

(581 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(K̲h̲āyir or K̲h̲ayr Bey), the last Mamlūk governor of Aleppo, subsequently first Ottoman viceroy of Egypt. He was the son of Malbāy b. ʿAbd Allāh al-D̲j̲arkasī ( sic), a Muslim Abaza trader in Circassian mamlūk s. He was born at Samsun (on the Black Sea coast within the Ottoman Empire), and his father presented him, although not a slave, with his four brothers to the Mamlūk Sultan al-As̲h̲raf Ḳāʾit Bāy [ q.v.]. He was enrolled in the Royal Mamlūks, and was formally “emancipated” by the grant of a steed and uniform. He became an amīr of Ten in 901/1495-6, and subsequently an amīr ṭablk̲h̲āna


(1,465 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, the third of the great neo-Mamlūk households of Ottoman Egypt. The Ḳāzdug̲h̲liyya differed from the D̲h̲u’l-Faḳāriyya and the Ḳāsimiyya [ qq.v.] in that it was founded and maintained in its first decades by officers of the Seven Corps of the Ottoman garrison, not by beys. Its eponym, Muṣṭafā al-Ḳāzdug̲h̲lī, is described by D̲j̲abartī as being Rūmī by origin, i.e., he was Rūm ūs̲h̲āg̲h̲i̊ , hence free-born and not a mamlūk (cf. Stanford J. Shaw (ed.), Ottoman Egypt in the eighteenth century: The Niẓâmnâme-i Mıṣır of Cezzâr Aḥmed Pasha , Cambridge, Mass. 1962; …


(617 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(commonly bazinger , bazingir , basinger , besinger ), slave-troops, equipped with firearms; a term current in the (Egyptian) Sudan during the late Khedivial and Mahdist periods. Etymology: The derivation is obscure. Sir Reginald Wingate’s assertion ( Mahdiism and the Egyptian Sudan , London 1891; 28, n. 1) that it was the name of a tribe may be rejected: it does not appear to come from any southern Sudanese language. Professor E. E. Evans-Pritchard’s statement (“A history of the kingdom of Gbudwe”, Zaire , Oct. 1956, no. 8; 488, n. 36) that it derives from a Nubian (?Dunḳulāwī) word, bezingr…

al-Muʾayyad S̲h̲ayk̲h̲

(754 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( al-Malik ), Circassian Mamlūk sultan. He was brought to Egypt by the k̲h̲wād̲j̲ā Maḥmūd S̲h̲āh (732/1380-1), and bought by al-Ẓahir Barḳūḳ [ q.v.] whence his nisbas of al-Maḥmūdī al-Ẓāhirī. He was then about 12 or possibly (following Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī) some 10 years older, and was in due course emancipated and promoted in the sultan’s entourage. In 802/1400 he was appointed governor of ¶ Tripoli by al-Nāṣir Farad̲j̲ [ q.v.], and spent the next 12 years in Syria, holding various appointments. He was deeply involved in the factional politics in which the Ẓāhiriyy…


(340 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
( Khartum , Khartoum ), a city at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles, now the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan. The name is said to be derived from the resemblance of the site to an elephant’s trunk. At the time of the Turco-Egyptian invasion (1821), Khartum was a small village, the residence of a holy man. It was chosen as the military and administrative headquarters of the conquered territories by the governor, ʿUt̲h̲mān Bey D̲j̲arkas, in 1824. With the…


(8,817 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, the Mamlūk sultanate, i.e. the régime established and maintained by (emancipated) mamlūks [see preceding article] in Egypt from 648/1250 to 922/1517, and in Syria from 658/1260 to 922/1516; and with the role of their successors, the neo-Mamlūks, in Ottoman Egypt. It surveys (i) political history, and (ii) institutional history. On military history, see the relevant sections by D. Ayalon of the articles baḥriyya (i.e. navy), bārūd , ḥarb , ḥiṣār ; on the bureaucracy, see dīwān , ii. Egypt (H. L. Gottschalk). (i) Political History (a) Origins of the Mamlūk sultanate The Mamlūk sultanat…


(913 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, the name of two Mamlūk sultans. 1. al-Malik al-Kāmil , (son of al-Nāṣir Muḥammad b. Ḳalāwūn [ q.v.]), who succeeded his full brother, al-Ṣāliḥ Ismāʿīl, on the latter’s death on 4 Rabīʿ II 746/4 August 1345. His accession was brought about by a faction headed by his stepfather, Arg̲h̲ūn al-ʿAlāʾī, who had been in effect regent for Ismāʿīl. A rival faction led by the vicegerent of Egypt, Almalik, supporting his half-brother Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī, rapidly lost power, and Arg̲h̲ūn became the dominant magnate throughout the reign. His sound pol…

Dār Fūr

(4,079 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
, “the land of the Fūr”, a province of the Republic of the Sudan, formerly a Muslim sultanate. Geography and inhabitants. Dār Fūr was one of the chain of Muslim states composing bilād al-Sūdān . Its eastern neighbour was Kordofān, from which it was separated by a tract of sand-hills. To the west lay Waddāī. The Libyan desert formed a natural boundary on the north, while the marshes of the Baḥr al-G̲h̲azāl [ q.v.] marked the southern limits. Dār Fūr comprises three main zones: a northern zone, the steppe fringe of the Sahara, providing grazing for camel-owning tribes …


(976 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(1) A group of tribes in the Republic of the Sudan. The principal tribes of this group, mainly sedentary in their way of life, inhabit the banks of the main Nile from the Dongola [ q.v.] region southwards to the Fifth (Sabalūka) Cataract. Other tribes and clans in Kurdufān (Kordofan) and elsewhere attach themselves to this group. The link among the tribes of the D̲j̲aʿaliyyūn is traditionally expressed in genealogical form: their eponymous founder (rather than ancestor) is said to have been a certain Ibrāhīm known as D̲j̲aʿal ( i.e., “he made”, because he made himself a following fr…

Ṭūmān Bāy

(573 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(al-Malik al-As̲h̲raf Abu ’l-Naṣr min Ḳānṣawh al-Nāṣirī), the last Mamlūk sultan of Egypt, r. 922-3/1516-17. Born ca. 878/1474-5, he was purchased as a mamlūk by his paternal uncle Ḳānṣawh al-G̲h̲awrī [ q.v.], and presented to the reigning sultan, Ḳāʾit Bay [ q.v.], by whose son and successor, al-Nāṣir Muḥammad [ q.v.] he was manumitted. During Ḳānṣawh al-G̲h̲awrī’s sultanate his career prospered. Appointed dawādār kabīr in 913/1507, he became in effect the sultan’s chief minister, acquiring also the great offices of high steward ( ustādār al-ʿāliya ) and kās̲h̲if al-kus̲h̲s̲h̲āf .

Emīn Pas̲h̲a

(891 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(Eduard Carl Oscar Theodor Schnitzer) was born on 28 March 1840 at Oppeln in Prussian Silesia. He graduated in medicine at Berlin in 1864. He entered the Ottoman service as a medical officer in Albania in 1865, and assumed the name of Ḵh̲ayr Allāh; later, in the Sudan, he became known as Meḥmed Emīn (Muḥammad Amīn, not al-A.). He went to Egypt in October 1875, whence he proceeded to khartoum, and (in May 1876) to Lado, the capital of the Equatorial Provinces, where he was appointed medical offic…

Ibrāhīm Bey

(807 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
al-Kabīr al-Muḥammadī (i.e., the mamlūk of Muḥammad Bey Abu ’l-D̲h̲ahab) was raised to the beylicate in 1182/1768-9, and held the appointments of amīr al-ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ in 1186/1772-3 and daftardār in 1187/1773-4. When Abu ’l-D̲h̲ahab went on campaign against S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ẓāhir al-ʿUmar (Muḥarram 1189/March 1775), he left Ibrāhīm as his deputy in command of Cairo. On his death, the ascendancy in Egypt passed to his retainers (the Muḥammadiyya) headed by Ibrāhīm and Murād Bey, the former becoming s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-balad . The characters of the two men were str…

Ḳānṣawh al-G̲h̲awrī

(1,588 words)

Author(s): Holt, P.M.
(usually but incorrectly vocalized Ḳānṣūh al-G̲h̲ūrī), the penultimate Mamlūk sultan of Egypt, was of Circassian origin and a mamlūk of Sultan Ḳāʾitbāy. He was trained in the military school ( ṭabaḳa ) named al-G̲h̲awr. whence his nisba . He became governor ( kās̲h̲if ) of Upper Egypt (886/1481-2), was appointed an amīr of Ten (889/1484), and took part in operations against the Ottomans on the Syrian-Cilician frontier, during which time he was governor ( nāʾib ) of Ṭarsūs. In Rabīʿ II 894/March-April 1489 he was appointed grand chamberlain ( ḥād̲j̲ib al-ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲āb
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