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Pelagianism

(1,893 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
1. Definition Pelagianism is an important theological trend that was an offshoot of a fourth-century ascetic movement (Asceticism 2). It takes its name from Pelagius (ca. 354-after 418), a British (Irish?) monk, who went to Rome in about 385. 2. Pelagius’s Teaching The preaching of Pelagius had a practical ascetic thrust. He attacked a Christianity that had no results. With his demand that the whole church should be holy, he gained numerous adherents among the clergy and nobility, among them Celestius (5th cent.). In a commentary on Paul’s epistles (406–9), Pelagius took iss…

False Decretals

(631 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
The False Decretals (also known as Pseudoisidorian Decretals) are the most influential part of a comprehensive collection of church statutes that also includes the Collectio Hispana Gallica Augustodunensis, the Capitularies of Benedict the Levite, and the Capitula Angilramni. They had their origin in approximately 850 in the kingdom of the West Franks. Though naming Isidore Mercator of Seville as their author, they seem to have been written by clergy of the archbishopric of Reims. For their historical background we must look to the growing integration of the church in…

Siricius

(98 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] Siricius, Papst 384–399, trat als Gegner der asketischen Kreise des Hieronymus und des Paulinus von Nola in Erscheinung. In seinen Briefen erstellte er Gutachten zu Fragen des kirchl. Lebens und zum Umgang mit Häretikern. Mit ihnen beginnt die Überlieferung der päpstl. Dekretalen, die den Synodalentscheidungen als eigene Rechtsquelle zur Seite treten. Heinrich Holze Bibliography PL 13, 1131–1196; 67, 231–238 RPR(J) 1, 21885, Nachdr. 1956, 40–42 LP 1, 1886, 216f. E. Caspar, Gesch. des Papsttums, Bd.1, 1930 F.R. Gahbauer (BBKL 10, 1995, 530/31) W. Schwaiger (LTh…

Silverius

(119 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] Silverius, Papst 8.6.536 – 11.11.537 (Verzicht; gest. 2.12.537 Insel Ponza oder Palmaria im Golf von Gaeta, geb. Frosinone, Kampanien). Der LP berichtet, daß S. auf Druck des Ostgoten Theodahad zum Bf. erhoben wurde. Als die Byzantiner unter Belisar Rom belagerten, setzte sich S. für die kampflose Übergabe der Stadt ein, wurde jedoch wenig später seines Amtes enthoben. Über sein kirchl. Wirken sind nur Klerikerweihen bekannt. Heinrich Holze Bibliography LP 1, 1886, 290–295 RPR(J) 1, 21885, Nachdr. 1956, 115f. E. Caspar, Gesch. des Papsttums, Bd.2, 1933 J. Richa…

Pelagius I.

(170 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] Pelagius I., Papst 16.4.556 – 4.3.561, bereits als Diakon von großem Einfluß (röm. Apokrisiar in Konstantinopel), versuchte jedoch vergeblich, die Plünderung Roms durch die Goten (546) abzuwenden. Im Dreikapitel-Streit nahm P. eine zweideutige Haltung ein. Zunächst sprach er sich gegen eine Verurteilung aus, setzte sich dann aber unter kaiserlichem Druck für die Anerkennung des Reichskonzils von Konstantinopel (: IV.,2.) ein. Daraufhin wurde er von Justinian I. zum Papst erhoben. …

Mecklenburg

(1,228 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] Situated between the Elbe and the Recknitz, Mecklenburg takes its name from the residence of the Obodrite princes in Michelenburg near Wismar. Originally settled by Germanic tribes, it was resettled during the migration period after 600 by West Slavic tribes (Obodrites, Lutycy, Wilcy), which already under Charlemagne and Otto I had come under the sway of the Frankish and then the German empire. As the Slavic rebellion in 983 shows, initial missionary efforts met with resistance. T…

Pelagius II, Pope

(139 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (pontificate 579–590), of Gothic ancestry. His pontificate was dominated by conflicts ¶ with the Lombards, against whom he sought an alliance with the Franks when help from the emperor was not forthcoming. Of his actions, the Liber pontificalis records that he donated his own house for the care of the poor and earned respect for building several churches. He tried in vain to end the schism of Aquileia, a product of the still smoldering Three Chapters Controversy. Relations with the Byzantine church…

Dorotheus of Gaza

(185 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (500/510, Antioch – 560/580, near Gaza) lived for years in a monastery near Gaza, where he was a student of Barsanuphius and John the Prophet. In 540 he founded his own monastery. His writings include works of spiritual instruction, several letters, a vita, and a collection of aphorisms. Building on Evagrius Ponticus, Basil the Great, and John Chrysostom, Dorotheus developed a cenobitic spirituality rooted in baptism. Under the guidance of a spiritual leader, …

Slüter, Joachim

(190 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (1490, Dömitz an der Elbe – May 19, 1532, Rostock). After studying in Rostock, he was appointed chaplain at Sankt Petri there in 1523; his Protestant preaching attracted large crowds. He drafted theses for a disputation in 1525, but the council disallowed it. The episcopal vicar succeeded in having him expelled from Rostock for a short time, but he returned in 1526. With his hymnal, catechism, and prayer book in Low German, he became the voice of the Reformation in Mecklenburg. Wi…

Hilarion of Gaza, Saint

(204 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (291–371), was a Palestinian monk, whose life is described by Jerome in the Vita Hilarionis (= VH; c. 390). According to this, Hilarion, who had acquired a philosophical education in Alexandria, was converted and became a student of Anthony, then settled in nearby Gaza as a hermit and performed miracles; he became the founder of Palestinian monastic life. After the death of Anthony (356) Hilarion fled from fame, sought solitude, and embarked on many years of peregrination; this led him to Cyprus,…

Bruno of Segni

(169 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (1040/1050, Asti – Jul 18, 1123, Segni, near Rome) was educated in the monastery of St. Perpetua near Asti and studied in Bologna. In 1073, he became a canon of the cathedral at Siena. In 1079, he debated with Berengar of Tours in Rome; shortly thereafter he was elected bishop of Segni. Under Gregory VII and his successors, he was one of the most influential members of the curia. In 1103, he entered the abbey of Monte Cassino and in 1107 became its abbot. Initially, he retained his ecclesiastical offices, but after ¶ the Investiture Controversy (1111) he withdrew …

Kammin

(203 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] is a city on the Dievenow in Pomerania; since 1176 an episcopal seat, first founded in Wolin in 1140 following the missionary journeys of Otto of Bamberg. The diocese received broad independence (Exemption) since it was subject to the Holy See in Rome, but not to the archdioceses of Gniezno or Magdeburg. In the 13th/14th centuries, the diocese, initially restricted to the territories subject to the dukes ¶ of Pomerania, expanded to the west (Mecklenburg) and southeast (Uckermark, Neumark). In 1248, the bishops of Kammin gained sovereignty over an …

Loccum Abbey

(218 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] Loccum Abbey, a Cistercian monastery lying 50 km northwest of Hanover, founded in 1163 as a filiation of Volkenroda, Thuringia. It was granted papal exemption in 1183 and an imperial charter in 1152. Its imperial immediacy was confirmed in 1530. The monastery gradually made the transition to the Reformation in the late 16th century, although it retained its autonomy. In 1677, G.W. Molanus organized the hospice according to the principles of Protestant monasticism ( Leges Hospitii). From 1792 onward, J.C. Salfeld transformed it into a “Prediger-Seminarium…

Marcellus I

(167 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (bishop of Rome May 27/Jun 26, 308 – Jan 16, 309). After a vacancy of several years caused by the persecutions, Marcellus succeeded Marcellinus. According to the Liber pontificalis he was of Roman origin. As bishop, Marcellus reorganized the Roman ¶ congregation, and made “25 titular churches in Rome in effect into parishes, because of the baptism and penance of many converts from the heathen, and because of martyrs to be buried” (LP 164). His moral severity, however, led to fierce controversies. Damasus I wrote on his g…

Silverius, Pope

(141 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] Jun 8, 536 – Nov 11, 537 (deposed; died Dec 2, 537, on the island of Ponza or Palmaria in the Gulf of Gaeta; born in Frozinone, Campania). The Liber pontificalis records that Silverius had been elevated to the episcopate at the instigation of Theodahad, Ostrogoth king of Italy. When the Byzantines under Belisarius laid siege to Rome, Silverius urged surrendering the city without resistance, but he was relieved of his office shortly afterwards. All that is known of his work as bishop of Rome comes from records of ordinations. Heinrich Holze Bibliography LP 1, 1886, 290–295 RPR…

Sternberg

(159 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (Mecklenburg). Sternberg is a town north of Schwerin where pogroms took place after Jews were charged with desecrating the host. After a hearing and trial, the accused were burnt at the stake, a prelude to the expulsion of all Jews from Mecklenburg. In the years that followed, the miraculous hosts in Sternberg made it a popular pilgrimage site. Duke Magnus underwrote the building of a chapel of the Sacred Blood. An Augustinian monastery was also built, whose promoters included J. v. Staupitz and Johann v. Paltz. In his An den christlichen Adel, Luther called for the dem…

Pontian, Pope (Saint)

(165 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (230 – Sep 28, 235). The theological significance of Pontian rests on his express approval of the condemnation of Origen by Bishop Demetrius of Alexandria. His episcopate fell in the period of the schism that had begun under Callistus I. During the persecution of Christians by Maximinus Thrax (235–238), both Pontian and his rival Hippolytus of Rome (217–235) were deported to Sardinia. The date Sep 28, 235, on which he resigned his office, thus ending the schism, is the earliest as…

Vigilius, Pope

(178 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (Mar 29, 537 – Jun 7, 555), Roman deacon and apocrisiary in Constantinople, made pope after the conquest of Rome by Byzantine troops. His pontificate was dominated by the superior power of the Byzantine hierarchy. While Vigilius asserted papal supremacy over the Western churches (correspondence with Arles), in the Three Chapters Controversy he had to submit to Justinian I. Initially he refused to assent to the edict of 544, but he abandoned his resistance at the Council of Constan…

Siricius, Pope

(98 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[German Version] (384–399) came forward as an opponent of the ascetic circles associated with Jerome and Paulinus of Nola. In his letters, he gave advice on questions of the life of the church and dealing with heretics. His pontificate marked the beginning of the tradition of the papal decretals as an independent legal source alongside synodal decisions. Heinrich Holze Bibliography PL 13, 1131–1196; 67, 231–238 RPR( J) 1, 21885, repr. 1956, 40–42 LP 1, 1886, 216f. E. Caspar, Geschichte des Papsttums, vol. I, 1930 F.R. Gahbauer, BBKL X, 1995, 530/531 W. Schwaiger, LThK 3 IX, 2000, 631.

Pelagius II.

(135 words)

Author(s): Holze, Heinrich
[English Version] Pelagius II., Papst 579–590, von gotischer Herkunft. Sein Pontifikat war geprägt von den Auseinandersetzungen mit den Langobarden, gegen die er wegen ausbleibender kaiserlicher Hilfe die Franken als Bündnispartner zu gewinnen suchte. Über sein Wirken berichtet der Liber pontificalis, er habe sein eigenes Haus für die Armenversorgung gestiftet und sich um den Bau mehrerer Kirchen verdient gemacht. Das Schisma von Aquileia, das um den noch immer schwelenden Dreikapitel-Streit entsta…
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