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ضريبة

(15,790 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Hopkins, J. F. P. | İnalcık, Halil | Rivlin, Helen | Lambton, Ann K.S. | Et al.
[English edition] 1. المشرق الضريبة هي إحدى الكلمات الأكثر استخداما للدّلالة على الجباية عموماً، وتنطبق على وجه الخصوص على فئة الضرائب بأكملها التي تضاف إلى الضرائب الأساسيّة الشرعيّة. وقد تمّت دراسة هذه الأخيرة (الزكاة والعشر والجزية والخراج...) وما أثمرته خلال الفترة «الكلاسيكيّة» في مادّة سابقة بعنوان «بيت المال». سيقع تقديم وصف مفصّل لأساليب تقدير القيمة والجباية، كلّ تحت عنوانه الخاصّ به، وبصفة خاصّة ما تعلّق بالخراج. وسيتمّ في خطّ مواز إدراج الضرائب والدفعات المرتبطة بها أو المفروضة على أصناف …

Ibn Tūmart

(2,016 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, the Mahdī [ q.v.] of the Almohads and founder of the Almohad movement [see muwaḥiddūn ]. The biographies of so celebrated a figure inevitably contain much legendary matter besides evident contradictions. He was born between 471/1078 and 474/1081 in the Anti-Atlas of Morocco. His father belonged to the Harg̲h̲a and his mother to the Masakkāla, both of which are divisions of the Maṣmūda tribal group and there can be no doubt that he was a pure Berber despite the various S̲h̲arīfian genealogies attributed to him…

Ibn Ṣāḥib al-Ṣalāt

(143 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Abū Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik b. Muḥammad al-Bād̲j̲ī , Andalusian author of an important history of the Almohads entitled al-Mann bi ’l-imāma ʿala ’l-mustaḍʿafīn bi-an d̲j̲aʿalahum Allāh al-aʾimma wa-d̲j̲aʿalahum al-wārit̲h̲īn (ed. ʿAbd al-Hādī al-Tāzī, Beirut 1964). Practically nothing is known of This Ibn Ṣāḥib al-Ṣalāt nor of his connexion with several other men of the same name. Ibn Ṣāḥib al-Ṣalāt seems himself to have been an Almohad ḥāfiẓ and clearly was closely ¶ involved in the events which he describes. Brockelmann’s statement, presumably taken from Amari, tha…

Ifrāg̲h̲a

(266 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
(or Afrāg̲h̲a ), the Arabic form of Fraga, name of a small town (pop. ca. 9000) in NE Spain 30 kms WSW of Lérida. The old part of the town is situated on the steep left bank of the R. Cinca some 18 kms above its confluence with the Ebro. Practically no traces of Muslim rule survive. Fraga fell into Arab hands presumably when Mūsā ¶ b. Nuṣayr took Saragossa in 96/714. Thereafter it may be assumed to have shared the fortunes of Saragossa, being rarely mentioned by name in the histories. At the beginning of the 6th/12th century it was still…

Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲

(150 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Numayrī , Andalusian scholar and poet of the 8th/14th century. Born at Granada in 713/1313, he left Spain in 737/1337 and did not return until 759/1358, having during his absence made two journeys to the East and served as kātib under the Marīnids and Ḥafṣids. Until his death in about 785/1383 he held the office of ḳāḍī and undertook various ambassadorial missions for the Naṣrids. Of his literary output, known by twenty titles, nothing is known to remain but fragments of verse scattered through various anthologies, biographical d…

Ilbīra

(236 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Sp. Elvira , town and the associated province, near or identical with Granada. The Iliberri/Ilbīra/Granada question has been much discussed and may be summarized as follows: The Roman town of Iliberri occupied part of the present site of Granada. The Arab governors of the region at first resided there, Arabicizing the name into Ilbīra, but about 130/747 founded, 12 km north-west of modern Granada, a new capital which was called Ḳasṭalla, Ḳasṭīla, or Ḳasṭīliya. This however s…

G̲h̲ubrīnī

(252 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, nisba of the B. G̲h̲ubrīn, a branch of the Zawāwa Berbers who formerly inhabited the eastern end of Great Kabylia in Algeria (Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, Berbères , Index s.v. Ghubrîn) and who are still represented in the same area by the Ait Ghobri (Brunschvig, Berbérie orientale , i, 286). Two G̲h̲ubrīnīs played a rôle in Ḥafṣid history: (1) Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh, b. 644/1246 at Bid̲j̲āya (Bougie) where he spent all his life and attained the rank of ḳāḍi ’l-ḳuḍāt . In 704/1304 he was sent by the Ḥafṣid ruler of Bougie, Abu ’l-Baḳāʾ Ḵh̲ālid, as an emissary to establish frien…

Ibn G̲h̲āzī

(88 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-ʿUt̲h̲mānī , Moroccan scholar of the 9th/15th century, was born at Meknès in 858/1454 and died in 919/1513 at Fez, where his tomb may still be seen. Of his many works (full list in Chorfa , p. 230, n. 2) the most useful to present-day scholars is al-Rawḍ al-hatūn fī ak̲h̲bār Miknāsat al-Zaytūn (Fez 1326/1908; partial tr. Houdas, Monographie de Méquinez , in JA, i (1885), 101-47). (J.F.P. Hopkins) Bibliography Lévi-Provençal, Historiens des Chorfa, Paris 1922, 224 (full treatment).

Ibruh

(295 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Sp. Ebro . Most writers in Arabic on the topography of Spain mention the river Ebro, but they are generally limited to the conventional information that it rises in the mountains of Nabarra or the Rūm, passes through Tudela (Tuṭīla) and Zaragoza (Saraḳusṭa), and reaches the Mediterranean a little below Tortosa (Ṭurṭūs̲h̲a). The Muslims never controlled the headwaters of the Ebro and were consequently vague about them. The same is true of the Duero, to the extent that Zuhrī s…

Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ

(360 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ḳus̲h̲ayrī , ruler of Murcia, 474/1081-481/1088. He is first heard of as ʿāmil of Ḥiṣn Bald̲j̲, the modern Vilches, in 474/1081. In This year Ibn ʿAmmār [ q.v.] stayed with Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ on his way from Seville to take Murcia from Ibn Ṭāhir for his master al-Muʿtamid Ibn ʿAbbād. Ibn ʿAmmār and Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ formed an association, as a result of which, and by a process of which the accounts differ, Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ became the independent ruler of Murcia. Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ’s position, like that of his neigh…

Ibn Farḥūn

(333 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Burhān al-Dīn Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī al-Yaʿmarī , Mālikī jurist. He was born about 760/1358 in Medina into a scholarly family of Andalusian origin. After travels in Egypt and Syria he was appointed to the ḳaḍāʾ in Medina in 793/1390 and is stated to have revived the Mālikī rite there. He died in 799/1397. Of the eight works (three unfinished) credited to him by Aḥmad Bābā five have survived, and of these two have been printed. (1) Al-dībād̲j̲ al-mud̲h̲hab fī maʿrifat aʿyān ʿulamāʾ al-mad̲h̲hab (printed several times; the most familiar edition is that combined with Aḥmad Bābā’s Nayl al-ibtihād̲j̲

Ibn al-Zubayr

(148 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Zubayr b. Bakkār … b. al-Zubayr b. al ʿAwwām , genealogist. He was born in Medina in 172/788. Falling foul of the ʿAlid faction he went to Bag̲h̲dād, where he is known to have been in 235/850. In 242/856 he was appointed ḳāḍī of Mecca and died there in 256/870. Over 30 titles of works by him are quoted but of them only two are extant: al-Muwaffaḳiyyāt , a collection of anecdotes compiled for Muwaffaḳ, son of the Caliph Mutawakkil, and the celebrated [ D̲j̲amharat ] Nasab Ḳurays̲h̲ wa-ak̲h̲bārhā . In spite of its fame the second half only of Nasab Ḳurays̲h̲

Ḍarība

(18,908 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Hopkins, J.F.P. | İnalcık, Halil | Rivlin, Helen | Lambton, Ann K.S. | Et al.
, one of the words most generally used to denote a tax, applied in particular to the whole category of taxes which in practice were added to the basic taxes of canonical theory. These latter ( zakāt or ʿus̲h̲r , d̲j̲izya and k̲h̲arād̲j̲ , etc.) and their yield in the “classical” period, have been covered in a general survey in an earlier article, Bayt al-māl , and a detailed description of the methodes of assessment and collection will be given under their respective titles, in particular under k̲h̲arād̲j̲; along with k̲h̲arād̲j̲ and zakāt will be included associated taxes and payments…

Ifrand̲j̲

(2,995 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Hopkins, J.F.P.
or Firand̲j̲ , the Arabic term for the Franks. This name, which probably reached the Muslims via the Byzantines, was originally used of the inhabitants of the empire of Charlemagne, and later extended to Europeans in general. In medieval times it was not normally applied to the Spanish Christians [see andalus , d̲j̲illīḳiyya and below], the Slavs [see ṣaḳāliba ] or the Vikings [see mad̲j̲ūs ii], but otherwise was used fairly broadly of continental Europe and the British Isles. The land of the Franks was called ifrand̲j̲a (Persian and Turkish Firangistān ). The earliest Muslim notions o…

Ḳalʿat Rabāḥ

(435 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Sp. Calatrava, town of Muslim Spain, of which the ruins are to be seen at Calatrava la Vieja on the left bank of the R. Guadiana about 15 km. north-north-east of Ciudad Real. According to the Rawḍ al-miʿṭār the town was founded in Umayyad times and peopled by the inhabitants of decaying Urīṭ (Oreto), about 40 km. to the south. The eponymous Rabāḥ is unidentified; the common belief that the place was named after the tābiʿ ʿAlī (or ʿUlayy) b. Rabāḥ seems to be an unfounded conjecture. It was the capital of an extensive region divided into d̲j̲uzʾ , which word in Andalusi…

Ibn Wāfid

(312 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Abu ’l-Muṭarrif ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad al-Lak̲h̲mī , Andalusian physician, pharmacologist, and agricultural theorist. Little is known of his life except that he was born in 398/1007 (according to Ṣāʿid) and was resident at Toledo in 460/1067 having studied medicine with Zahrāwī at Cordoba. He died in 467/1074. In spite of his pharmacological knowledge, says Ṣāʿid, he preferred to treat sickness by diet and if forced to use drugs preferred the simple to the compound. Of the seven works by him mentioned by his biographers the following are certainly or probably extant: (1) K. fi ’l-a…

Ibruh

(294 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J. F. P.
, esp. Ebro, l’Èbre. Beaucoup d’écrivains arabes mentionnent l’Èbre dans la topographie de l’Espagne, mais ils se contentent généralement de l’indication conventionnelle selon laquelle il prend sa source dans les montagnes de Nabarra ou des Rūm, traverse Tudèle (Tuṭīla) et Saragosse (Saraḳusṭa), et atteint la Méditerranée un peu au-dessous de Tortose (Ṭurṭūs̲h̲a). Les Musulmans ne dominèrent jamais le cours supérieur de l’Èbre, de sorte qu’ils le laissèrent dans le vague. Il en est de même pour le…

Ifrand̲j̲

(3,029 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Hopkins, J.F.P.
ou Firand̲j̲, terme arabe désignant les Francs. Ce mot, transmis probablement aux Musulmans par les Byzantins, s’appliquait à l’origine aux habitants de l’empire de Charlemagne, avant de s’étendre aux Européens en général. Au moyen âge, il ne s’employait pas pour les Chrétiens d’Espagne [voir Andalus, Ḏj̲illīḳiyya], les Slaves [voir Ṣaḳāliba] ou les Vikings [voir Mad̲j̲ūs, II], mais par ailleurs s’appliquait de façon générale à l’Europe continentale et aux îles britanniques. Le territoire des Francs s’appelait Ifrand̲j̲a (en persan et en turc Firangistān). Les notions les plu…

Ibn Ṣāḥib al-Ṣalāt

(141 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J. F. P.
, Abū Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik b. Muḥammad al-Bād̲j̲ī, auteur andalou d’une importante histoire des Almohades intitulée al-Mann bi-l-imāma ʿalā l-mustaḍʿafīn bi-an d̲j̲aʿalahum Allāh al-aʾimma wa-d̲j̲aʿalahum al-wārit̲h̲īn (éd. ʿAbd al-Hādī al-Tāzī, Beyrouth 1964). On ne connaît pratiquement rien de cet Ibn Ṣāḥib al-Ṣalāt, ni de ses rapports avec plusieurs autres personnes du même nom. Ibn Ṣāḥib al-Ṣalāt semble lui-même avoir été un ḥāfïẓ almohade, et il est évident qu’il fut mêlé de près aux événements qu’il décrit. L’affirmation de Brockelmann, probablement…

Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ

(372 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Abu Muhammad ʿAbd al-Rahmān al-Ḳus̲h̲ayrī, seigneur de Murcie (474-81/1081-8). Il entre dans l’histoire comme ʿāmil de Ḥiṣn Bald̲j̲ (auj. Vilches) en 474/1081. Au cours de ¶ cette année, Ibn ʿAmmār [ q.v.], venant de Séville dans l’intention de prendre Murcie à Ibn Ṭāhir pour le compte de son maître al-Muʿtamid Ibn ʿAbbād, séjourna chez Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ. Ibn ʿAmmār et Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ formèrent une association au sujet de laquelle les renseignements diffèrent, mais qui eut pour résultat de faire d’Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ le souverain indépenda…
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