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Ibn G̲h̲āzī

(88 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-ʿUt̲h̲mānī , Moroccan scholar of the 9th/15th century, was born at Meknès in 858/1454 and died in 919/1513 at Fez, where his tomb may still be seen. Of his many works (full list in Chorfa , p. 230, n. 2) the most useful to present-day scholars is al-Rawḍ al-hatūn fī ak̲h̲bār Miknāsat al-Zaytūn (Fez 1326/1908; partial tr. Houdas, Monographie de Méquinez , in JA, i (1885), 101-47). (J.F.P. Hopkins) Bibliography Lévi-Provençal, Historiens des Chorfa, Paris 1922, 224 (full treatment).


(295 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Sp. Ebro . Most writers in Arabic on the topography of Spain mention the river Ebro, but they are generally limited to the conventional information that it rises in the mountains of Nabarra or the Rūm, passes through Tudela (Tuṭīla) and Zaragoza (Saraḳusṭa), and reaches the Mediterranean a little below Tortosa (Ṭurṭūs̲h̲a). The Muslims never controlled the headwaters of the Ebro and were consequently vague about them. The same is true of the Duero, to the extent that Zuhrī s…

Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ

(360 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ḳus̲h̲ayrī , ruler of Murcia, 474/1081-481/1088. He is first heard of as ʿāmil of Ḥiṣn Bald̲j̲, the modern Vilches, in 474/1081. In This year Ibn ʿAmmār [ q.v.] stayed with Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ on his way from Seville to take Murcia from Ibn Ṭāhir for his master al-Muʿtamid Ibn ʿAbbād. Ibn ʿAmmār and Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ formed an association, as a result of which, and by a process of which the accounts differ, Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ became the independent ruler of Murcia. Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ’s position, like that of his neigh…

Ibn Farḥūn

(333 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Burhān al-Dīn Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī al-Yaʿmarī , Mālikī jurist. He was born about 760/1358 in Medina into a scholarly family of Andalusian origin. After travels in Egypt and Syria he was appointed to the ḳaḍāʾ in Medina in 793/1390 and is stated to have revived the Mālikī rite there. He died in 799/1397. Of the eight works (three unfinished) credited to him by Aḥmad Bābā five have survived, and of these two have been printed. (1) Al-dībād̲j̲ al-mud̲h̲hab fī maʿrifat aʿyān ʿulamāʾ al-mad̲h̲hab (printed several times; the most familiar edition is that combined with Aḥmad Bābā’s Nayl al-ibtihād̲j̲

Ibn al-Zubayr

(148 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Zubayr b. Bakkār … b. al-Zubayr b. al ʿAwwām , genealogist. He was born in Medina in 172/788. Falling foul of the ʿAlid faction he went to Bag̲h̲dād, where he is known to have been in 235/850. In 242/856 he was appointed ḳāḍī of Mecca and died there in 256/870. Over 30 titles of works by him are quoted but of them only two are extant: al-Muwaffaḳiyyāt , a collection of anecdotes compiled for Muwaffaḳ, son of the Caliph Mutawakkil, and the celebrated [ D̲j̲amharat ] Nasab Ḳurays̲h̲ wa-ak̲h̲bārhā . In spite of its fame the second half only of Nasab Ḳurays̲h̲


(18,908 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Hopkins, J.F.P. | İnalcık, Halil | Rivlin, Helen | Lambton, Ann K.S. | Et al.
, one of the words most generally used to denote a tax, applied in particular to the whole category of taxes which in practice were added to the basic taxes of canonical theory. These latter ( zakāt or ʿus̲h̲r , d̲j̲izya and k̲h̲arād̲j̲ , etc.) and their yield in the “classical” period, have been covered in a general survey in an earlier article, Bayt al-māl , and a detailed description of the methodes of assessment and collection will be given under their respective titles, in particular under k̲h̲arād̲j̲; along with k̲h̲arād̲j̲ and zakāt will be included associated taxes and payments…


(2,995 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Hopkins, J.F.P.
or Firand̲j̲ , the Arabic term for the Franks. This name, which probably reached the Muslims via the Byzantines, was originally used of the inhabitants of the empire of Charlemagne, and later extended to Europeans in general. In medieval times it was not normally applied to the Spanish Christians [see andalus , d̲j̲illīḳiyya and below], the Slavs [see ṣaḳāliba ] or the Vikings [see mad̲j̲ūs ii], but otherwise was used fairly broadly of continental Europe and the British Isles. The land of the Franks was called ifrand̲j̲a (Persian and Turkish Firangistān ). The earliest Muslim notions o…

Ḳalʿat Rabāḥ

(435 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Sp. Calatrava, town of Muslim Spain, of which the ruins are to be seen at Calatrava la Vieja on the left bank of the R. Guadiana about 15 km. north-north-east of Ciudad Real. According to the Rawḍ al-miʿṭār the town was founded in Umayyad times and peopled by the inhabitants of decaying Urīṭ (Oreto), about 40 km. to the south. The eponymous Rabāḥ is unidentified; the common belief that the place was named after the tābiʿ ʿAlī (or ʿUlayy) b. Rabāḥ seems to be an unfounded conjecture. It was the capital of an extensive region divided into d̲j̲uzʾ , which word in Andalusi…

Ibn Wāfid

(312 words)

Author(s): Hopkins, J.F.P.
, Abu ’l-Muṭarrif ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad al-Lak̲h̲mī , Andalusian physician, pharmacologist, and agricultural theorist. Little is known of his life except that he was born in 398/1007 (according to Ṣāʿid) and was resident at Toledo in 460/1067 having studied medicine with Zahrāwī at Cordoba. He died in 467/1074. In spite of his pharmacological knowledge, says Ṣāʿid, he preferred to treat sickness by diet and if forced to use drugs preferred the simple to the compound. Of the seven works by him mentioned by his biographers the following are certainly or probably extant: (1) K. fi ’l-a…


(15,790 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Hopkins, J. F. P. | İnalcık, Halil | Rivlin, Helen | Lambton, Ann K.S. | Et al.
[English edition] 1. المشرق الضريبة هي إحدى الكلمات الأكثر استخداما للدّلالة على الجباية عموماً، وتنطبق على وجه الخصوص على فئة الضرائب بأكملها التي تضاف إلى الضرائب الأساسيّة الشرعيّة. وقد تمّت دراسة هذه الأخيرة (الزكاة والعشر والجزية والخراج...) وما أثمرته خلال الفترة «الكلاسيكيّة» في مادّة سابقة بعنوان «بيت المال». سيقع تقديم وصف مفصّل لأساليب تقدير القيمة والجباية، كلّ تحت عنوانه الخاصّ به، وبصفة خاصّة ما تعلّق بالخراج. وسيتمّ في خطّ مواز إدراج الضرائب والدفعات المرتبطة بها أو المفروضة على أصناف …
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