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Abū Dulāma

(394 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
Zand b. al-Ḏj̲awn , a black slave, client of the Banū Asad in Kūfa. He is already mentioned in the history of the last Umapyad caliph, but appears as a “poet” only under the ʿAbbāsids and plays the part of a court jester in the palace of al-Saffāḥ and especially in those of al-Manṣūr and al-Mahdī. His poem on the death of Abū Muslim (137/754-5) is said to have been the first of his works to make him a name. Examples of his poetry show him to have been a clever, witty versifica…

ʿAbbāsa

(588 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, daughter of the caliph al-Mahdī, sister of the caliphs Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and al-Hādī; it is to her that the locality Suwayḳat al-ʿAbbāsa owes its name. She had three husbands in succession, who all predeceased her; this inspired Abū Nuwās to write some satirical verses, in which he recommanded the caliph, should he want to have a traitor killed, to marry him to ʿAbbāsa. Her name is connected with the fall of the Barmakids through the amorous intrigue with Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥyā al-Barmakī, with whi…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Salām

(566 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a Jew of Medīna, belonging to the Banū Ḳaynuḳāʿ and originally called al-Ḥusayn (on the name Salām, see Ibn Ḵh̲aṭīb al-Dahs̲h̲a, Tuḥfa , ed. Mann, 69). Muḥammad gave him the name of ʿAbd Allāh when he embraced Islam. This conversion is said to have taken place immediately after Muḥammad’s arrival at Medīna, or, according to others, when Muḥammad was still in Mecca. Another account which makes him accept Islam in the year 8/629-30 is worthy of more credence—though Muslim critics think it badly a…

Ḏj̲urayd̲j̲

(201 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a saint whose story is said to have been related by the Prophet himself and has therefore found a place in the ḥadīt̲h̲ . The various versions differ in details one from another, but one motif is common to them all, that the saint is accused by a woman, who had had a child by another man, of being its father; but the child itself, on being asked by the saint, declares the real father’s name and thus clears the saint from suspicion. “D̲j̲urayd̲j̲” is the Arabic reproduction of Gregorius, and one version rightly states that he lived in the prophetless period ( fatra [ q.v.]) between Jesus and Muḥamm…

Abu ’l-Ḳāsim

(234 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the name of a canting parasite, whom Muḥammed b. Aḥmed Abu ’l-Muṭahhar al-Azdī depicts in his Ḥīkāyat Abi ’l-Ḳāsim al-Bag̲h̲dādī as a Bag̲h̲dād type. The book was probably written in the first half of the fifth century and purports to relate faithfully a day in the life of its hero. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim by means of his pious eloquence gets a hearing in a society of people at a banquet, rails at the guests and the host and shows his linguistic skill in a detailed comparison of the advantages of Bag̲h…

ʿAbbāsa

(610 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, daughter of the caliph al-Mahdī, sister of the caliphs Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and al-Hādī; it is to her that the locality Suwaiḳat al-ʿAbbāsa owes its name. She had three husbands in succession, who all predeceased her; that inspired Abū Nuwās to write some satirical verses, in which he recommended the caliph, should he want to have a traitor killed, to marry him to ʿAbbāsa. Her name is connected with the fall of the Barmakides through the amorous intrigue with Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Yaḥya ’l-Barmakī, with wh…

Umm al-Kitāb

(162 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the original copy of the Book with Allāh in heaven, from which the revelations of the Ḳurʾān come and from which Allāh “abrogates and confirms what He pleases” (Sūra xiii. 39). This original copy, called Aṣl al-Kitāb in Ḥadīt̲h̲. (e. g. Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, xxv. 26), is according to Sūra lxxxv. 21 written in a “carefully preserved table” ( fī lawḥ maḥfūẓ; cf. Enoch 93, 2; Book of Jubilees 5, 13; 16, 9; 32, 21). In the Medīna period Umm al-Kitāb is used in another sense: according to Sūra iii. 5, the book revealed by Allāh to Muḥammad, i. e. the Ḳurʾān, consists of verses “clearly expressed” ( āyāt muḥkam…

Bak̲h̲tiyār Nāmah

(457 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, also known as the History of the Ten Viziers, a Muḥammadan imitation of the originally Indian story of Sindbad or the Seven Viziers. Like its prototype it consists of a single narrative which forms a framework into which a number of other stories, which in this case are closely connected with the main story, are inserted. The story may be briefly told: the son of king Azādbak̲h̲t is abandoned by his parents on their flight, soon after his birth, found and brought up by robbers and with them ultimately taken prisoner by the king. ¶ The latter, being pleased with him, takes him, under the…

Aladdin

(62 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(=ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn) is the hero of the tale of the magic lamp, which for the first time is found in Galland’s translation of the Arabian Nights’ Entertainments. The Arabian original was discovered again by Zotenberg and published in 1888. (J. Horovitz) Bibliography Notices et Extraits des manuscr. de la Biblioth. Nation, xxviii. Chauvin, Bibliographic des ouvrages arabes v. 55 et seq.

Awrangābād

(164 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, chief town of the division of the same name in Haidarabad (Deccan) situated between 19° 53′ n. and 75° 20′ L. and the second largest town in that state, having in 1901 36, 837 inhabitants. The town founded in 1610 by Malik Ambar, minister of the ruler of Aḥmadnagar, was originally called Fathnagar and did not receive its present name till 1653 when Awrangzēb was Governor of the Deccan. When Āsaf Ḏj̲āh declared himself independent as first Niẓām, Awrangābād was added to his territory. The town …

Ḏj̲uraid̲j̲

(198 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a saint, whose story is said to have been related by the Prophet himself and has ¶ therefore found a place in the Ḥadīt̲h̲. The various versions differ in details from one another, but one motif is common to them all, viz. that the saint is accused by a woman, who had had a child by another man, of being the father, but the child itself on being asked by the saint, declares the real father’s name and thus cleares the saint from suspicion. “Ḏj̲uraid̲j̲” is the Arabic reproduction of Gregorius and one version rightly states that he lived in the period without a prophet ( fatra) between Jesus and Muḥa…

Kawt̲h̲ar

(471 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, a word used in Sūra cviii. 1 after which this Sūra is called Sūrat al-Kawt̲h̲ar. Kawt̲h̲ar is a fawʿal form from kat̲h̲ara, of which other examples occur in Arabic (e. g. nawfal; further examples in Brockelmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik, i. 344). The word, which also occurs in the old poetry (e.g. the examples in Ibn His̲h̲ām, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 261, and Nöldeke-Schwally, Geschichte des Qorans, i. 92), means “abundance” and a whole series of Muslim authorities therefore explain al-Kawt̲h̲ar in Sūra cviii. I as al-k̲h̲air al-kat̲h̲īr (see Ibn His̲h̲ām, op. cit.; al-Ṭabar…

Tawaddud

(627 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the heroine of a story which is preserved in the 1001 Nights as well as in an independent form. Tawaddud (as a personal name not found elsewhere in Arabic literature — however frequent it is as a nomen verbi — is of similar formation to Tamannī, Tad̲j̲annī and similar women’s names) is the slave of a merchant who has fallen into poverty and, following her advice, offers her for sale to the caliph Hārūn to free him from his difficulties. Hārūn declares himself ready to pay the high price demanded on condition she shows by an examination tha…

al-Wāḳidī

(1,564 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿUmar, an Arab historian born in 130 in Medīna; according to Ag̲h̲ānī, vii. 189, his mother was a great-grand-daughter of Ṣāʾib who introduced music into Medīna. Al-Wāḳidī was so called after his grandfather al-Wāḳid, al-Aslamī as a mawlā of ʿAbd Allāh b. Buraida who belonged to the Medīnese family of Aslam. On the occasion of Hārūn’s pilgrimage in 170 (see Ṭabarī, iii. 605) he was recommended to him as the best authority on the holy places of his native town and acted as guide to th…

Daibul

(309 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(Dēwal), a commercial town and seaport in Sind, mentioned even in Sāsānian history; the Arabs on the occasion of the first Arab expedition (154) to India won a victory at Daibul and it was finally conquered by Muḥammad b. al-Ḳāsim in 934. The Arab geographers, some of whom had personal acquaintance with Daibul, describe its situation (not far from the month of the Mihrān) and emphasise its importance as a commercial harbour; in Muḳaddasī’s time the merchants spoke Sindī and Arabic. Yāḳūt gives t…

Tawrāt

(1,996 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, Hebr. Tōrā, is in the Ḳurʾān of the Medīna period (cf. also an alleged verse of the Jewish poet Sammāk in Ibn His̲h̲ām, p. 659) the name of a holy scripture revealed after the time of Ibrāhīm (iii. 58) and Isrāʾīl (= Jacob; iii. 87) and afterwards confirmed by ʿĪsā (iii. 44; v. 50; lxi. 6) which contains the ḥukm Allāh (v. 48). While obedience to it brings a reward in Paradise to the “people of the book” (v. 70), those who do not take upon themselves the tawrāt imposed upon them are “like asses who carry books” (lxii. 5). The Tawrāt also contains a prophecy of the coming of the Nabī al-ummī (vii. 156) i.…

Attock

(89 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
(Atak), capital of the district of the same name, founded in 1894, in the Rawalpindi division of the Punjab (Pund̲j̲āb). The district, which has an area of 4022 square miles, had 464,430 inhabitants in 1901 of whom over 90% were Muḥammadans. The fort of Attock which stands on the Indus was built by Akbar in 991 (1583) who called it Atak-Banāras. (J. Horovitz) Bibliography Imperial Gazetteer - VI, 131—138 (new edition) Cunningham in the Archaeological Survey of India II, 93 Elliot, History of India, Index s. v. Atak-Bcnares.

ʿAbd Allāh

(581 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
b. Salām, a Jew from Medina, originally called al-Ḥuṣain and belonged to the Banū Ḳainuḳāʿ. Muḥammed gave him the name of ʿAbd Allāh when he embraced Islām. This conversion is said to have taken place immediately after Muḥammed’s arrival at Medina, but according to others, when Muḥammed was still in Mecca. Another account which makes him accept Islām in the year 8 (629-630) is worthy of more credence — though Mohammedan critics think it badly accredited, — for his name is sought in vain in the battles which Muḥammed had to wage in Medina. The few unimportant mentions in the Mag̲h̲āzī may well …

Assam

(233 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, name of a district in British India, which since 1905 has formed with 15 districts of northern and eastern Bengal the new province of “Eastern Bengal and Assam”. The district of Assam covers 61, 682 Eng. sq. mls., and lies between 22° 19′ and 28° 16′ N. Lat. and 89° 42′ and 97° 12′ E. Long. The population in 1901 amounted to 6, 126, 343 persons, of whom 1, 581, 317 were Muḥammadans, and of these 2724 called themselves S̲h̲īʿites. Almost three-fourths of the Muḥammadan population belong to the …

Dabistān

(282 words)

Author(s): Horovitz, J.
, the title of a Persian work, which describes the various religions with special reference to religious conditions in India in the xith (xviith) century. It is based partly on the sacred books of the various creeds, and partly on oral statements of their adherents or the author’s own observations; the older Muḥammadan literature on the subject has also been used in many chapters. The religion of the Parsis is first discussed with special thoroughness; uext follows that of the Hindus and after very short chapters on t…
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