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Summa

(872 words)

Author(s): Hoye, William J.
1. Term “Summa” was first used for a comprehensive literary work in the 12th century. We can hardly use it, however, for the totality, crown, or summary of what is done without further definitions and synonyms such as compendium, epitome, summula, and others. The traditional medieval use occurs in the title of P. Melanchthon’s (1497–1560; Reformers 3.1.1) Corpus doctrinae Christianae; according to the 1571 edition, it is “a summa of Christian doctrine in a short, plain, and basic collection.” Summas were a specific phenomenon of university life but were not used in teachin…

Transcendental Theology

(843 words)

Author(s): Hoye, William J.
1. Origin Transcendental theology originated when Roman Catholic Christians wrestled with the transcendental philosophy of I. Kant (1724–1804; Kantianism). Initiated by the Belgian Jesuit J. Maréchal (1878–1944), it used the metaphysics of Thomas Aquinas (ca. 1225–74; Thomism) in expansion of the transcendental method of Kant. In this way it hoped to justify the traditional doctrine of God philosophically. This transcendental Thomism established as a starting point something that Kant neglected, namely, an absolute acceptance of…