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Lambaesis

(399 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Legio | Limes | Limes | Rome Camp and town in Numidia on the northern slope of Mons Aurasius (modern Aurès), modern Tazoult-Lambèse (on Lam- place-names of the immediate vicinity and beyond cf. [1. 539]). Documentary evidence: Ptol. 4,3,29 (Λάμβαισα; Lámbaisa); It. Ant. 32,4; 33,2f.; 34,2; 40,6 ( Lambese); Tab. Peut. 3,2 ( Lambese); in inscriptions more frequently Lambaesis than Lambaese. L. was close to the beginning of the road leading through the gorge of Calceus Herculis (to…

Icosium

(141 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce (Ἰκόσιον; Ikósion, Punic ʾj ksm, ‘island of the owls’?). Phoenician or Punic foundation in the later Mauretania Caesariensis, modern Algiers. References: Mela 1,31; Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,6; It. Ant. 15,5; Sol. 25,17 (with incorrect etymology); Amm. Marc. 29,5,16 (with allusion to this etymology); Geogr. Rav. 40,44; 88,12. A roman veterans' colony was founded at I. during the reign of  Juba II (Plin. HN 3,19; 5,20). Under Vespasian, the city became a colonia Latina (CIL VIII Suppl. 3, 20853). A h…

Baquates

(103 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A Mauritanian tribe ( gens Baquatium) [1. 2851] that probably lived in the east and south of Mauretania Tingitana. Ptol. 4,1, 10, the It. Ant. 2,2f. and the Liber generationis (1,197,65 Mommsen) link it with the tribe of the Macenites or Μακανῖται ( Makanîtai) and Massennae, Iulius Honorius (cosmographia B 47) and the Provinciarum laterculus codicis Veronensis (14,4f.) with the Barbares, i.e. the  Bavares. The Romans allowed the freedom-loving B. their independence and treated them as allies; Inscr. latines d'Afrique 609. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 H. D…

Acholla

(143 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni Town in Africa Byzacena, modern Ras Bou Tria [4. 86-89]. For the tradition of the place name [5. 250]; AE 1969/70, 183 no. 633. A. was apparently founded by Phoenician or Phoenician-influenced Maltese [1. 312, 380]. It was 12 miles [2. 5] south of Sullectum and 27 miles south of Thapsus (Tab. Peut. 6,3). In the Third Punic War, A. surrendered to the Romans and from then became part of the populi liberi [3. 374-376]. Archaeological evidence for prosperous   villae (2nd cent. AD; inscriptions and mosaics). Huß…

Gir

(72 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] River that has its source in the high Atlas Mountains, presumably the Oued Guir. C.  Suetonius Paullinus advanced to it with his troops in AD 42. References: Plin. HN 5,15 ( Ger); Ptol. 4,6,13; 16; 31 (Γείρ; Geír); Geogr. Rav. p. 2,69; 3,14; 36,28; 37,11 ( Ger); Claud. Carm. 21,252 ( Gir); Anon. Geographia Compendiaria 31 (GGM II 502; Γίρ; Gír). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Dessau, s.v. G., RE VII 1, 1366.

Musti

(210 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis to the southwest of Thugga on the great road connecting Carthage with Sicca Veneria, modern Le Krib. Native city, which came under Punic rule and then fell to Massinissa. From the 1st century BC (?) [1. 366] until the late Roman period M. was a municipium (CIL VIII suppl. 1, 15582). Ptol. 4,3,42 (Μούστη κώμη/ Moústē kṓmē); Itin. Anton. 26,2; 41,3; 45,2; 49,3; 51,3 ( M.); Tab. Peut. 5,2 ( Mubsi); e.g. CIL VIII 1, 1577 ( Mustitani). In inscriptions several temples are mentioned: Juno (CIL VIII suppl. 4, 27438); Liber Pater and Venu…

Meninx

(143 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μῆνιγξ; Mêninx). Island (modern Djerba) and city (modern al-Kantara) in the province of Africa Tripolitana ( Africa [3]). Eratosthenes (fr. p. 308 Berger, in Plin. HN 5,41) describes the island as ‘lotus-eating’ (λωτοφαγῖτις; lōtophagîtis). Sources: Ps.-Scyl. 110 (GGM 1,85-89); Pol. 1,39,2; 34,3,12; Str. 3,4,3; Mela 2,105; Ptol. 4,3,35; 8,14,13; Stadiasmus Maris Magni 103; 104; 112; 124 (GGM 1,465f.; 468; 471). In 253 BC the Roman fleet ran into diffilculties off M. ((Pol. 1,39,2). In 217 BC the island was laid …

Syrtis

(138 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Σύρτις/ Sýrtis, 'bay'). Ancient term for two bays on the coast of northern Africa: S. maior (modern Gulf of Benghazi) and S. minor (modern Gulf of Gabès). The name, which is probably - in contrast to the opinion of ancient philologists - not Greek but Phoenician in origin, emerges for the first time in Herodotus (e.g. 2,32,2). Ps.-Scylax (109 f.; GGM 1,84-89) and Strabo (2,5,20; 25; 33; 3,4,3; 17,3,1; 17,3,17-20) describe the S. from a geographical point of view. Both bays were fea…

Saldae

(163 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Punic Wars | Punic Wars City and harbour of Mauretania Caesariensis, later of Sitifensis, near the mouth of the Oued Soummam, present-day Bejaïa in Algeria (Ps.-Scyl. 111: Σίδα πόλις/ Sída pólis (?); Ptol. 4,2,9: Σάλδαι κολωνία/ Sáldai kolōnía; It. Ant. 5,2: Saldis; 17,3: Saldis colonia; 31,6: Saldas; 32,3: Saldis; 39,2: Saldis; 39,6: Saldis colonia; 39,7: Saldis; Notitia episcoporum Mauretaniae Sitifensis 41: Saldae). S. was on the boundary between the kingdom of Juba [2] and the Roman…

Ammaedara

(263 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Limes (Ἀμμαίδαρα; Ammaídara). Town in Africa proconsularis [5. 147, n. 756] between  Althiburus and  Theveste (Ptol. 4,3,30), modern Haïdra; for other forms of the name [4. 1841]. Originally, A. was probably a settlement of the  Musulamii [2. 117-121]. Because of its strategically important location, which allowed it to control important communication roads and to cover the southern flank of Africa proconsularis, the   legio III Augusta was relocated to the vicinity of A. dur…

Cercina

(186 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Κέρκιν(ν)α; Kérkin(n)a). Island, or rather twin islands (Gharbi and Chergui), in the Gulf of Gabès, 20 km from Sfax, modern Kerkenna. Sources: Hdt. 4,195 (Κύραυις); Ps.-Scyl. 110 (GGM 1, 87); Str. 17,3,16; Mela 2,105; Plin. HN 5,41; Ptol. 4,3,35; Agathemerus 21f. (GGM 2, 483); It. Ant. 518,3f.; Stadiasmus Maris Magni 112 (GGM 1, 468). C. was part of the Carthaginian empire and boasted excellent harbours (Diod. Sic. 5,12,4). In historical sources, C. is mentioned in the context of …

Apisa Maius

(69 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Town in Africa proconsularis; the modern Henchir Tarf ech-Chena. In AD 28 A. was led by two   sufetes with Punic names and surnames; from the 3rd cent. AD a   municipium . Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography Inscriptions: CIL V 1, 4921; 8,1, 774-791; Suppl. 1, 12233-12240; Suppl. 4, 23843-23846. AATun 50, folio 34, no. 111 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire 2, 1981, 68-70.

Ausum

(101 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Castrum of the Numidian   limes , which was 75 km west-south-west of Biskra; probably the place today known as Sadouri. The military camp protected the area south of the Chott el-Hodna. A. was where the road from Lambaesis met the road that led from Auzia via Doucen to Gemellae. Inscription in honour of  Gordianus (AD 247 [1. 31-33]); it is, however, possible that A. was already in existence before this time. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Carcopino, Le Limes de Numidie et sa garde syrienne, in: Syria 6, 1925 2 AAAlg, folio 48, no. 1 3 J. Baradez, Fossatum Afric…

Madaurus

(183 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Coloniae | Punic Wars Numidian city of the later province of Africa proconsularis ( Africa [3]), situated c. 25 km south of Tagaste near modern Mdaourouch: Ptol. 4,3,30 (Μάδουρος; Mádouros); Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia B 44 ( Madauros). According to Apul. Apol. 24, M. initially belonged to the kingdom of Syphax, then to that of Massinissa. In the Flavian period (AD 69-96), M. was the place of residence ( colonia) of veterans [1. 2152]. The little town developed into a centre of Roman life…

Quinquegentiani

(93 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Berber tribal group, settled in the Great Kabylia (modern Algeria) between Rusuccuru and Saldae (?), which was finally subjugated by Maximianus [1]. References: Pan. Lat. 7,8,6; Eutr. 9,22 f.; Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,22; Oros. 7,25,4; 7,25,8; Iord. Historia Romana 297; 300; Get. 110; Zon. 12,31. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2615; 2, 8836; 8924; 9010(?); AE 1985, 902(?). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines ..., 1962, 67  L. Galand, Les Quinquegentanei, in: Bulletin d'archéologie algérienne 4, 1970, 297-299  H. Treidler, s. v.…

Casae Calbenti

(31 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] Statio in Mauretania Caesariensis, 15 miles from Tipasa, 32 miles from Icosium (It. Ant. 15,3-5), probably modern Castiglione. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 4, no. 50.

Nias

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νίας/ Nías). River in western Africa, probably in Senegal (Ptol. 4,6,7). The N. is probably correctly identified with the Chretes of Hanno (Χρέτης/ Chrétēs, Hanno, Periplus 9, GGM 1,8), the Chremetes of Aristotle (Χρεμέτης/ Chremétēs, Aristot. Mete. 1,13 p. 350b) and the Bambotus (Plin. HN 5,10) [1. 776, 8147]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Huß. F. Windberg, s.v. Nias, RE 17, 165-167.

Utica

(582 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Coloniae | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars (Ἰτύκη/ Itýkē). Town in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]) at the mouth of the Bagradas, 33 km north-west of Carthage, the modern Henchir Bou Chateur, with important archaeological remains (including mosaics in private dwellings); the oldest Phoenician colony on African soil (Ps.-Aristot. Mir. 134, = 844 a; Vell. Pat. 1,2,3; Mela 1,3,4; Plin. HN 5,76; 16,216; Sil. Pun. 3,241 f.; Just. Epit. 18,4,2; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἰτύκη/ Itýkē; [1. 35]). The Phoenici…

Abthugni

(82 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (pun. p[t]bgn?). Town in Africa Byzacena, the modern Henchir es-Souar; for the tradition of the place name [1]. The   fossa regia ran close to A. (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 23084). Under  Hadrian, Abthugni became a   municipium (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 11206; Suppl. 4, 23085). Further inscriptions: AE 1991, 461 f., no. 1641-1644. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. Schmidt, s. v. Aptugni, RE 2, 288. AATun 050, sheet 42, no. 52 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine au Bas-Empire, 2, 1981, 265-277.

Oea

(319 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni (neo-Punic Wjt). City on the coast of Africa Tripolitania between Sabratha and Leptis Magna, modern Tripoli. Evidence: Mela 1,37; Plin. HN 5,27; 38; Sil. Pun. 3,257; Ptol. Geog. 4,3,12 (Ἐῶα; Eôa); It. Ant. 62,2 ( Ocea colonia); Tab. Peut. 7,3 ( Osa colonia); Stadiasmus maris magni 98f. (GGM 1,463f.). Probably a Phoenician foundation [1. 36, 74]. Colonists from Africa and Sicily participated in the later expansion of the city (Sil. Pun.…
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