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Gunugu

(113 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Phoenicians, Poeni (New Punic Gngn). Punic or Punic-influenced trading post west of Caesarea, modern Sidi Brahim near Gouraya. Under Augustus G. rose to become a colonia whose citizens were allocated to the tribus Quirina. Evidence: Plin. HN 5,20; Ptol. 4,2,5 (Κανουκκίς); It. Ant. 15,1 ( Gunugus); Geogr. Rav. p. 40,45 ( Gunubus); 88,10 ( Gunagus); 132,19 ( Cunagus). In the Notitia episcopatuum Mauretaniae Caesariensis (111a) an episcopus Gunugitanus is mentioned for the year 484. Inscriptions: Réperto…

Tigava

(130 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] City in Mauretania Caesariensis City in Mauretania Caesariensis (Africa [3]; Ptol. 4,2,26; Amm. 29,5,20?) on the right bank of the Oued Chéliff, modern El Kherba. Initially a civitas (Plin. HN 5,21), then a municipium (It. Ant. 38,1). Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 9648; 10946 f.; Suppl. 3, 21497 f.; 22569 f.; 22579; AE 1955, 149. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography F. Windberg, s. v. T. (2), RE 6 A, 942 f. [German version] [2] Fort in Mauretania Caesariensis This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Fort in Mauretania Caesariensis (Africa …

Pentapolis

(49 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Πεντάπολις; Pentápolis). The region of the 'five cities' of western Cyrenaica, i.e. of Euhesperides/Berenice [8], Tauchira/Arsinoe, Barke (later outstripped by Ptolemaïs), Cyrene and Apollonia/Sozusa. With Darnis (modern Derna) the region of eastern Cyrenaica began. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. P. (3), RE 19, 509f.

Tubusuctu (Thubuscum)

(190 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Mauretania Sitifensis (Plin. HN 5,21; Ptol. 4,2,31; 8,13,12; Amm.  Marc. 29,5,11), about 30 km to the southwest of Saldae in the Oued Soummam valley, modern Tiklat. Although founded as a colonia by the later Augustus for veterans of the legio VII, T. adopted the (neo-)Punic traditions of the surrounding area. In the late Roman period the centre of a military district (Not. Dign. Occ. 25,27; [1. 52]). In T.'s territory there was significant olive cultivation. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 2, 8834-8921; Suppl. 3, 20648-20…

Rusguniae

(223 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Name of Cap Matifou, which encloses the Bay of Algiers in the northeast, and the Punic base near the cape, modern Tamentfoust. [1. 379] explains the name with Rš-gnj = 'Cap du Francolin'. Evidence: Ruthisia (?), Mela 1,31; colonia Augusti R., Plin. HN 5,20; Ῥουστόνιον/ Rhoustónion, Ptol. 4,2,6; R. colonia, It. Ant. 16,1; Rusgume, Geogr. Rav. 40,43; Rugunie, Geogr. Rav. 88,13; Rusgimia, Guido, Geographia 132,22. R. became a colonia through deductio of legio IX Gemella before AD 27 [2]. Inscriptions: CIL VIII…

Chullu

(137 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Phoenicians, Poeni (Κούλλου; Koúllou). Coastal town in the province of Numidia, modern Collo. (Sources: Ptol. 4,3,3; It. Ant. 19,1; Tab. Peut. 3,2; Iulius Honorius, Cosmographia 44,29; Geogr. Rav. 40,21; Guido 132,32). Mentioned by Solin. (26,1) because of its purple dye works, C. was possibly a Phoenician or Punic foundation, and in any case, under strong Punic influence [1. 343-368]. Under the governorship of P. Sittius it became a colonia Minervia, and later constituted one of the quattuor coloniae Cirtens…

Vaga

(160 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]; cf. Str. 17,3,12; Plin. HN 5,29) 35 km to the north of Thugga, modern Béja, with a number of ancient remains (city wall, basilica). In the second of the Punic Wars. V. apparently supplied troops for the Carthaginian contingent (Sil. Pun. 3,259). No later than after the third Punic War, V. fell to Massinissa. During the War of Iugurtha, V. was conquered by Caecilius [I 30] Metellus (Sall. Iug. 29,4; 47,1; 66-69). It was probably Septimius [II 7] Severus, who elevated V. to a coloni…

Nias

(60 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νίας/ Nías). River in western Africa, probably in Senegal (Ptol. 4,6,7). The N. is probably correctly identified with the Chretes of Hanno (Χρέτης/ Chrétēs, Hanno, Periplus 9, GGM 1,8), the Chremetes of Aristotle (Χρεμέτης/ Chremétēs, Aristot. Mete. 1,13 p. 350b) and the Bambotus (Plin. HN 5,10) [1. 776, 8147]. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 Huß. F. Windberg, s.v. Nias, RE 17, 165-167.

Furnus

(101 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Maius City in Africa proconsularis, southwest of Thuburbo Maius, modern Aïn Fourna. Municipium since an indefinite period (CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 12039). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 1, 752f.; Suppl. 1, 12030; 12039; Suppl. 4, 23798-23811; ILTun 617-620. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 100, sheet 25, no. 187. [German version] [2] Minus City in Africa proconsularis, southwest of Carthage, modern Henchir Msaadine. Municipium since Caracalla (AD 211-217) (CIL VIII Suppl. 4, 25808b). Epigraphical evidence: CIL VIII 2, 10609f.; Suppl.…

Xilia

(38 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Ξιλία; Xilía). City in northern Africa (πόλις Λιβύης, 'city in Libya'), not located. Mentioned in Alexander [23] Polyhistor FGrH 273 F 44 (1st cent. BC). Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2129.

Muthul

(30 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] A river in Numidia, right-hand tributary of the river Bagradas, probably the Oued Mellègue. Sall. Iug. 48,3-50,2. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography R. Oehler, s.v. Muthul, RE 16, 937f.

Volubilis

(585 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | | Coloniae | Africa | Limes City in Mauretania Tingitana in a strategically favourable location 20 km to the north of Meknès (in Morocco); modern Walı̄la. V. was originally probably a Berber settlement, but as an inland city was Punicised relatively early. From the 4th/3rd cents. BC onwards, V. was one of the residences of the Moorish rulers. From no later than the 3rd cent. BC, V. was under the administration of sufetes. Neo-Punic inscription…

Mulucha

(107 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] River in Mauretania, rising in the High Atlas and flowing into the Mediterranean to the east of the western Cape Metagonion [1], modern Moulouya. Initially it divided Mauretania and Numidia (Numidae), from 46 BC the Western Mauretanian kingdom of Bogudes [2] II and the Eastern Mauretanian kingdom of Bocchus [2] II, from AD 42 Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis and from the time of Diocletian (Diocletianus, with map) the dioceses of Hispaniae and Africa. Plin. HN 5,19…

Tisidium

(85 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] City in Africa Proconsularis (Africa [3]; Tab. Peut. 5,4; the oppidum Thisiduense in CIL VIII Suppl. 1, 13188?), modern Krich el-Oued (in Tunisia). In the Jugurthine War (Iugurtha) Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus set out from T.   to punish the city of Vaga for its treachery (Sall. Iug. 62,8; 68,2 f.). In the 2nd cent AD a municipium . Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 1267-1271; Suppl. 1, 14763-14765. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AATun 050, sheet. 27, No. 28  F. Windberg, s.v. T. (1), RE 6 A, 1478 f.

Siga

(151 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars | Punic Wars (neo-Punic Šjgn). City and river port of Mauretania Caesariensis on the Oued Tafna, 4 km to the south of Portus Sigensis, modern Takembrit in Algeria (Ps.-Scylax 111; Pol. 12,1,3; Liv. 28,17,15 f.; Str.  17,3,9; Mela 1,29; Plin. HN 5,19; Ptol. 4,2,2;  It. Ant. 12,8; Steph. Byz. s. v. Σίγαθα/ Sígatha). At first a Punic trading post, later the royal city of Syphax, king of the Masaesyli. In the city (only partially excavated) the cult of Saturnus appears to have supplante…

Nicives

(137 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Νίσιβες/ Nísibes). According to Plin. HN 5,29f., the N. were a people in Africa Proconsularis. A boundary stone from the time of Vespasian [1. 289f.] locates them in the ager publicus of Cirta. According to Ptol. 4,3,24 the N. lived in the south of Numidia (Numidae) near the Nattabutae and Miaedioe. Later they were to be found in the region of N'Gaous (Nicivibus), 80 km south of Sétif. For the year AD 411 an episcopus Niciuensis is attested (acta concilii Carthaginiensis anno 411 habiti 1,201). Inscriptions: AE 1969-1970, 696. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 J. La…

Mimaces

(87 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] (Μίμακες; Mímakes). Libyan nomads living near the Machyni, Machryes and Gephes (between the Tunisian Dorsale and the Chott el-Jerid) (Ptol. 4,3,26 and Steph. Byz. s.v. M. = Philistus of Syracuse). According to Ptol. 4,6,20f., M. also lived in the Libyan interior, not far from the Thála óros (Θάλα ὄρος; the modern Tahela Ohat in the Ahaggar mountains?) and near the Noubai (Νοῦβαι). Libyes, Libye Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Desanges, Catalogue des tribus africaines..., 1962, 115, 224 H. Treidler, s.v. Mimakes, RE 15, 1711f.

Gemellae

(104 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Africa | Limes Camp and city in Numidia, situated 25 km south-west of Biskra, modern El-Kasbat. G. was part of the fortification system of the fossatum. A detachment of the legio III Augusta and the ala I Pannoniorum were here at various times. In the 4th cent. the praepositus limitis Gemellensis had its quarters in G. Evidence: Tab. Peut. 5,1; Not. Dign. Occ. 25,24. Inscriptions: CIL VIII 1, 2482; Suppl. 2, 17976-17985; AE 1969-1970, 222 no. 741(?); 1989, 287 no. 883.  Limes Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography J. Baradez, G., …

Thamugadi

(211 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Africa | | Coloniae | Limes City in the province of Numidia (Numidae), about 20 km to the east of Lambaesis (It. Ant. 34,1; 35,2; 40,7; Tab. Peut. 3,4), modern Timgad in Algeria. Founded in AD 100 by Munatius [II 4] Gallus as Colonia Marciana Traiana T. (CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 17842f.), probably the last pre-titular colonia [E] in Africa [3]. As the considerable remains show, the city swiftly flourished. Numidae influenced by the Poeni may have taken the cults of Caelestis, Saturn, …

Thuburbo

(292 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] T. Maius This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae City in Africa proconsularis (Africa [3]; Plin. HN 5,29; Ptol. 4,3,35; It. Ant. 48,9; Tab. Peut. 5,4), 65 km to the southwest of Carthage in the fertile valley of the Oued Miliane, modern Henchir Kasbat. The original Berber town was considerably Punicized [1. 300-302]; inscriptions [2. 885; 3; 4] and several buildings from the Roman period used by Punic cults are evidence of this process. From the time of Hadrianus a municipium [5. 244, 278], from the time of Commodus a colonia (CIL VIII 1, 848; [5. 26…
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