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(70 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p. older form diz̲h̲, Avestan daēza), a fortress or citadel. Arab writers have handed down to us the name Ḳohandiz “the old citadel” borne by the Sāsānian fortresses inside the towns of Ḵh̲orāsān and Mā warāʾ al-Nahr (Samarḳand, Buk̲h̲ārā, Balk̲h̲, Marw, Nis̲h̲āpūr, Herāt etc.). — Dizdār, the governor of a fortress. Aḥmad Wafīḳ Pas̲h̲a claimed to be descended from a family of Bulgarian origin called Dizdār. (Cl. Huart)


(528 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(formerly Kas̲h̲-wīn), a town in Persia in the province of ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī 100 miles from Ṭeherān at the foot, on the south, of Mount Alburz [q. v.] at a height of 4,000 feet above sea-level; present population about 25,000. The etymology of the name is uncertain. Al-Balād̲h̲urī (p. 321; cf. Ibn al-Faḳīh and Ḳudāma) says that Kas̲h̲-vin means “the boundary which one watches”, i. e. “well guarded”; it may also be explained as “the one who watches the corner”, but this seems to be a popular etymology. It has been connected with Caspius (Spiegel, Erân. Alterthumskunde, i. 74, note 1). Founded by …


(269 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Mawlānā Idrīs Ḥakīm, a Turkish general and historian, son of the mystic Ḥusām al-Dīn, who belonged to the school of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ ʿOmar Yazīr, was first of all, an official in the chancellory of Yaʿḳūb, son of Uzun Ḥasan, Sulṭān of the Turcomans of the White Sheep (died 896 = 1490-1491). His reply to the Ottoman Sulṭān Bāyazīd II on the latter’s message announcing his victory, induced the Sulṭān to invite Bidlīsī to his court where he remained in the service of Selīm I. He accompanied the latter on …


(160 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.), in Egypt gibba, a garment of Syrian origin, with narrow sleeves (Buk̲h̲ārī, Ṣaḥīḥ, transl, by Houdas and Marçais, ii. 321), sometimes lined with cotton, worn under the ʿabā [q. v., p. 1]. In Egypt it was worn over the ḳaftān; it was a long robe with short sleeves, lined in winter with fur. In Spain, in the transition period, d̲j̲ubbas of flock silk were worn. In Mecca the garment, which is made of light cloth or silk, is worn over the badan; during the hot season it is thrown over the shoulders. Women wear a d̲j̲ubba of cloth, velvet or silk, embroidered with gold or coloured silk, n…

ʿAlī Pas̲h̲a

(1,739 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
is a name and title borne by numerous statesmen and generals of the Ottoman Empire. — 1. Vizier and general of Murād I Ḵh̲udāwendigiār, rejected the proposals of peace made by ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, prince of Ḳaramān, at the time of the advance of the Ottomans on Ḳonya, was then ordered to invade Bulgaria; he captured Tirnovo, Shumla and Nicopolis, where the Krai Sisman capitulated (791 = 1389); chosen as minister by Bāyazīd I, he aided the latter to indulge in his shameful debauches, while at the same time he introduced improvements in the administration; ¶ he obtained from the Sultan the appoin…


(114 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(p.; Old Pers. framānā, Pahl. framān), properly a command thence “written order”, “letters patent” or “diploma”; the word has passed from Turkish into French and English with the pronunciation firman. Such documents were always written in the chancelleries in a special hand and to this day the nastaʿliḳ is used in Persia for this purpose and the dīwānī in Turkey. Several princes of the Persian Royal Family, ¶ e. g. Fatḥ ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s eldest son who was governor of Fārs for 40 years, beautified S̲h̲īrāz with the garden Bāg̲h̲-i Naw and wrote several works, have borne the title Fermān-fermā (“…


(45 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Avestan vahis̲h̲tō), the name of Paradise among Persian Muslims. Even in the Avesta the expression aṅhu vahis̲h̲ta “the best world” for the abode of the chosen in the future life is found. (William Jackson in Grundriss der iran. Phil., ii, 685). (Cl. Huart)


(232 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
ʿAmīd al-Dīn Asʿad b. Naṣr al-Anṣārī, poet and minister to Saʿd b. Zengī, the atābeg of Fārs, a native of Abarz, a canton of this province (Luṭf ʿAlī Beg, Ātes̲h̲-Kede, p. 8), now Abard̲j̲, north of S̲h̲īrāz (Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Mīrzā Ḥasan ¶ Fesāī, Fārs-Name-i Nāṣirī, S̲h̲īrāz, 1313 = 1895-1896, ii. 170). He was sent by his master the atābeg as an ambassador to the sultan Muḥammed Ḵh̲wārizm-S̲h̲āh, refused the offers which were made to him, succeeded Rukn al-Dīn Ṣalāḥ Kirmānī as minister and held his position until the death of the atābeg Saʿd. The son and successor…

ʿUbaid Zākānī

(255 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(Nihẓām al-Dīn ʿUbaid Allāh), a Persian poet of the xivth century, born c. 700 (1300) at Ḳazwīn in the family of the Zākānī, which took its name from a village in the neighbourhood, whence it had originated, lived in S̲h̲īrāz, which left him happy memories, in the reign of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Isḥāḳ Ind̲j̲ū (d. 747 = 1346—1347), was a judge in Ḳazwīn, went to Bag̲h̲dād where Sulṭān Uwais of the Īlk̲h̲ānian or Ḏj̲alāʾirid dynasty was reigning, to visit the poet Selmān Sāwed̲j̲ī and died in poverty in 772 (1371)…


(124 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
(a.; cf. Fränkel, Die aram. Fremdwörter, p. 238) “regular army”, used in the Ḳorʾān in the sense of the New Testament λεγεών, ¶ was used after the Muslim conquest of Syria to designate five military districts, a division based on the Byzantine division into themes, each occupied by one legion. These were Filasṭīn, Urdunn, Dimas̲h̲ḳ, Ḥimṣ and Ḳinnasrīn; Mesopotamia was attached to the latter but separated by ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān. Ḳinnasrīn at first belonged to Ḥimṣ, till Yazīd 1 b. Muʿāwiya formed a new d̲j̲und to …

Abu ’l-G̲h̲āzī Behādur K̲h̲ān

(396 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Turkish historian and sovereign of Ḵh̲wārizm, was the 2d son of ʿArab Muḥammed Ḵh̲ān, whose capital was Urgand̲j̲, and who was descended from Cinggīz Ḵh̲ān. He was born near Urgand̲j̲ in 1603 (the year of the hare; the date given by himself of the Hegira — 1014 = 1605 — cannot be correct). Being on bad terms with his brothers, his father invested him with the government of the town of Kāt; he commanded the right wing when his father was defeated by his rebellious sons, and took refuge at Samarḳand with…


(607 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl
, a Ṣūfī religious order, founded by Ḳalandar Yūsuf [cf. ḳalandarī],an Arab of Spain, contemporary with Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bektās̲h̲ [q. v.], brought to Damietta by the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn al-Sāwī, a native of the town of Sāwa in Persia; he is buried in the Zāwiya which he had founded there. He shaved his beard and eyebrows, since by doing this he had escaped in an amorous adventure; all his pupils followed his example. This sect, however, must have its origin in an earlier period, for it appeared in Damas…


(202 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Bektās̲h̲ī dervish, a native of Marzifūn (Marsiwān in Asia Minor in the wilāyet of Sīwās) took part in several wars waged by the Turks in the reigns of Sulṭāns Meḥemmed II, Bāyazīd II, Selīm I and Sulaimān II and fell during the siege of Buda (Ofen) in a skirmish below the walls of the city on the 29th Rabīʿ II 948 = 21st August 1541 (Pečewī, i. 227). After he had been buried on the spot where he had fallen, Sulaimān II declared him the patron saint of the city ( gözd̲j̲üsü). His name was also borne by a Bektas̲h̲ϊ monastery near the hot. springs of Well-bey outside the Ḵh̲oros gate…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(169 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
Ḥusām Zāde, S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām, son of Tulumd̲j̲u Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Ḥusām (died 1055 = 1645); born in 1003 (1594-1595), ḳāḍī at Aleppo (1050= 1640), at Constantinople (1054 = 1644), ḳāḍī ʿasḳar at Anatolia (1059= 1649), then in Roumelia (1062 = 1652), at first refused and then accepted the title of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām (1065 — 1655) in place of Abū Saʿīd Muḥammed Efendi. During the troubles of Ḏj̲umādā I 1066 (April 1656), known as the events of the Platane (Ćenar waḳʿa-si), having seen Ḳara ʿAbd Allāh massacred by the insurgent Sipāhīs (Hammer-Purgstall, Hist. de l’empire ottoman, x. 380; Jou…


(151 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, in Turkish “bombardier”, a body of regular troops formerly in the Ottoman army. It was composed of 300 men provided with military fiefs; the Count of Bonneval becoming the chief (January 24, 1732) with the title of Ḵh̲umbarad̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊, in the reign of Sulṭān Muṣṭafā III, began to enlarge it by 300 paid men. The force was increased to a thousand men by Sulṭān Selīm III, latterly it was commanded by an Englishman named Inglīz-Muṣṭafā. It was disbanded in the reforms. This body was included in the ḳapu-ḳuli̊, “slaves of the Porte”, and thus attached to the personal service of …

Aḥmed I

(562 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, fourteenth Ottoman sultan, eldest son of Muḥammed III, born in 998 (1589), succeeded his father at the age of 14. Derogating the custom established by Bāyazīd I Yildirim he had not assassinated his brother Muṣṭafā when ascending the throne. He removed his grandmother, Sultana Ṣafīya (the Venetian Baffa), who had ruled over the empire under Murād III and Muḥammed III, as well as her confidants. He entrusted the Kapūdān-pas̲h̲a Cicala with the chief command over the troops led against the Persia…

Esʿad Efendi

(220 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Muḥammad, a Turkish official and historian, son of Muftī Abū Isḥāḳ Ismāʿīl, born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 1096 (Oct. 1685), filled several judicial offices in the lifetime of his father, accompanied the Turkish army to Belgrade in 1152 (1739), became Ḳāḍī-ʿasker of Rūmilī in Muḥarram 1157 (Febr. 1744) and succeeded Muftī Aḳ-Maḥmūd-Zāde in office on the 24th Rad̲j̲ab 1161 (20th July 1748). He was the author of a Lehd̲j̲et al-Lug̲h̲a (Arabic-Persian Dictionary, printed in Constantinople 1211 = 1795), a Bülbül-nāme (“Book of the Nightingale”) a Ted̲h̲kire-i Ḵh̲wānendegān (“collection of b…

Kemal al-Dīn Ismāʿīl

(286 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, a Persian poet of Iṣfahān, son of Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ, was one of a group which devoted its eulogies to the family of the Ṣāʿidīs (also called Āl-i Ḵh̲ud̲j̲andī) which kept political and judicial power in its control in Iṣfahān. Surnamed Ḵh̲allāḳ al-Maʿānī “creator of thoughts”, he dedicated his odes mainly to the judge Rukn al-Dīn Ṣāʿid b. Masʿūd, but also to the Ḵh̲wārizms̲h̲āhs (ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Takas̲h̲, Muḥammad, his son, Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn and G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn, his grand-sons) who ruled in ʿIrāḳ-ʿAd̲j̲amī, as well as to the Atābeks of Fārs who rul…


(109 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, the Polybotum of the Byzantine historians, a small town in Asia Minor, chief town of a Ḳazā in the Sand̲j̲aḳ of Afyūn Ḳārā-Ḥiṣār (Wilāyet Ḵh̲ūdāwendgiār), 25 miles distant from the latter town, lying in a plain at the foot of the Emīr-Dag̲h̲ and Sulṭān-Dag̲h̲, is surrounded by numerous gardens mixed with ancient ruins, and has six mosques, at least ten madrasas, a Rus̲h̲dīya (modern) school, a monastery of Ḳādirī dervishes and 8000 inhabitants, all Muḥammadans. In the neighbourhood are the hot springs of Ḳizil-Kilīsā and the Seld̲j̲ūḳ ruins of Isḥāḳlū and Čāi. (Cl. Huart) Bibliography ʿA…

Esʿad Efendi

(211 words)

Author(s): Huart, Cl.
, Saiyid Muḥammed, called ṣaḥḥāf-Zāde (“son of the bookseller”), a Turkish official and historian, son of al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Aḥmad, who was Mudarris and at the same time a bookseller and later Ḳāḍī of Jerusalem and Cairo, born in Constantinople near the Āyā Ṣōfia on the 18th Rabīʿ I 1204 (6th Dec. 1790), adopted his father’s profession and received the position of a judge in Adrianople and Scutari in Albania without actually filling the offices. On the death of S̲h̲ānī-Zāde in 1241 (1825) he was appointed Historiographer Royal. He held this office…
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