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Judgment Forming

(148 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] The expression judgmentforming denotes the more or less methodical process of arriving at a judgment – logical, moral, aesthetic, legal, etc. It comprises an ordered sequence of steps, beginning with the appearance of a particular constellation of problems and ending with a temporary or final solution. Objectively, it presupposes that the constellation of problems in question can be clearly identified and defined and is also amenable to solution under the conditions of finite reason…

Self-sufficiency, Rational

(405 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] In the ethics of ancient philosophy, self-sufficiency (Gk αὐτάρκεια/ autárkeia, Lat. sufficientia sui) denotes the basic ethical stance through which individuals seek to attain the goal of their lives, true eudaimonia, by aspiring to happiness in the inward constitution of their soul (III, 3) independently of outward goods and the vicissitudes of fate; in this context, self-sufficiency resembles the virtue of prudence (Democritus). Xenophon sketches the figure of Socrates as the ideal of the …


(1,671 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] Penitence, like the related terms contrition, repentance, regret, and remorse (cf. Ger. Reue), denotes a common human feeling in which a person feels painfully affected by the effects of his or her actions or attitudes, and is moved to wish these things had not happened and to attempt to revise them in future behavior or make good their effects. The concept of penitence presupposes the processual nature of personal being (Process), which in the case of finite persons has a temporal structure …

Gambling Habit

(155 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] The gambling habit is a powerful inclination that places a person between desire and aversion in a tense state of agitation under intense pressure to engage in gaming (Play). The carefree ease of gaming is thus reduced to a meaningless waste of time or elevated to a compulsive addiction to a recklessness that jeopardizes life and property. Gaming becomes perverted into a symbol of personal bondage in which the player flees into an alternative world instead of attending to his or h…


(303 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] (Ger. Takt, Fr. tact, Lat. tactus, “sense of touch, feeling, influence”) denotes the practical judgment that enables the accurate application of rules in concrete cases by drawing on the totality of the determinants present in the mind as universal rules of common sense or experience, without being elevated to the level of conscious scientific clarity (I. Kant). In a moral sense, tact is sensitivity to what is right and proper given the distinctive character of a particular situation a…

Starbuck, Edwin Diller

(160 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] (Feb 20, 1866, Guilford Township, IN – Nov 18, 1947, Los Angeles, CA), American pioneer of the psychology of religion and educational theory as an empirical science based on developmental psychology. After a happy childhood with his Quaker parents, he studied at Harvard under W. James and at Clark University under G.S. Hall. His dissertation on conversion and adolescent development, based on questionnaires, was published in 1899; it is considered the first book on the empirical ps…


(258 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] As an ethical and legal term, imputability denotes (in a person who has reached the age of discretion) the normally assumed capacity to recognize the morality (Morality and immorality) or legality of an action in a given situation and to act on this recognition by voluntarily choosing whether or not to act, thus becoming legally and morally responsible for any consequences. The concept is a product of the theory of imputation (see also Justification) as developed in 17th- and 18th-centu…


(1,522 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion The word theonomy is a neologism modeled on Greek ϑεο-νομία/ theo-nomía. It means that reality and its order, especially human morality and immorality, are subject to God’s law. The term became popular in the 19th century in the context of reaction against I. Kant’s reformulation of the concept of autonomy. The issue raised by the two terms autonomy and theonomy can be summed up in the question whether they are opposites or correlates. The substantial meaning of theonomy is dependent on the conception of God that it …

Leuba, James Henry

(171 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] (Apr 9, 1868, Neuchâtel, Switzerland – Dec 8, 1946, Yellow Springs, OH). Born in Switzerland and brought up in a Reformed environment, Leuba lived in the United States from 1887 onward and studied at Clark University under S. Hall. His empirical study of conversion, which he submitted as a doctoral dissertation in 1895, is considered a pioneering work of the psychology of religion. From 1898 to 1933, Leuba was professor of psychology at Bryn Mawr College. Together with W. James, he became the foremost promoter of the American psychology of religion. ¶ His religion-critic…


(451 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] The noun wish denotes a person’s desire to obtain an anticipated or pursued good (Goods) for him- or herself or others. It presupposes the temporality of existence, as is present in our experiencing as the immediate present of the remembered past and the awaited future of personal presence. In wishes as phenomena of consciousness, intentional act and content can be distinguished but never separated. Hence the common distinction between the subjective sense of the word (wish as an ac…


(298 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] The term selfishness denotes the disastrous focus of finite persons on their own selves (Self), perverting their creaturely self-love through inversion of the proper relation between relationship to God, the world, and self. 1. When one’s relationship to God is subordinated to relationship to oneself or is replaced entirely, selfishness manifests itself as hubris, the desire to be like God (Gen 3:5), spiritual pride, and self-righteousness. Theologically, therefore, there has been a tendency to identify selfishness with sin per se (Augustine, Puritanism ¶ [Purit…

Tradition Maintenance

(283 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[German Version] Maintenance of tradition means responsible concern for the authentic preservation of a significant traditional body of insights, norms, ways of life, or institutions that shape the identity of an ordered community along with the individuals within it and their formational history. Maintenance of tradition means more than fixing a tradition in oral or written form and rigid perpetuation of its existing state; precisely in order to preserve a tradition’s original meaning, it include…


(140 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[English Version] ist eine heftige Gefühlsneigung, die eine Person in die Lage intensiven Handlungsdrucks versetzt, sich in spannungsvoller Erregung zw. Lust und Unlust dem Spiel hinzugeben. Dessen sorglose Leichtigkeit wird so zum sinnentleerten Zeitvertreib herabgesetzt bzw. zur zwanghaften Sucht, zum riskanten – Leib und Gut aufs Spiel setzenden – Leichtsinn gesteigert. Das Spiel pervertiert zum Symbol personaler Unfreiheit, worin sich der Spieler in eine Alternativwelt flüchtet, anstatt die Au…


(1,335 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[English Version] I. Religionsphilosophisch Der als Neologismus zu griech. ϑεο-n̆ομι´α/theo-nomía gebildete Begriff bez. allg. die Gottesgesetzlichkeit bzw. -bestimmtheit der Wirklichkeit und ihrer Ordnung, insbes. der Sittlichkeit des Menschen. Der Begriff erlangte seit dem 19.Jh. Bedeutung im Zusammenhang der Reaktion auf I. Kants Neufassung des Autonomiebegriffs. Das mit dem Begriffspaar Autonomie und Th. aufgerissene Problem spitzt sich zu auf die Frage, ob es sich in ihnen um Gegen- oder Korrespond…


(251 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[English Version] bez. die verantwortliche Sorge für die authentische Bewahrung eines überlieferten Bestandes an Einsichten, Normen, Lebensformen, bzw. Institutionen, der für das Leben einer Gemeinschaft und ihre Ordnung sowie die in ihr lebenden Individuen und deren Bildungsgeschichten identitätsprägende Bedeutung besitzt. T. erschöpft sich nicht in der mündlichen oder schriftlichen Fixierung und starren Perpetuierung des Formbestandes einer Tradition, sondern umfaßt gerade um des Erhalts ihres u…


(238 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[English Version] (Imputabilität) bez. ethisch und rechtlich die bei einer mündigen Person im Normalfall vorauszusetzende Fähigkeit, im Kontext einer gegebenen Handlungssituation die Sittlichkeit bzw. Rechtmäßigkeit einer Handlung, d.h. eines freiwillentlichen Tuns oder Unterlassens, einzusehen und dieser Einsicht gemäß zu handeln sowie ggf. für die Handlungsfolgen rechenschaftspflichtig zu sein und haftbar gemacht werden zu können. Der Begriff entstammt der Imputationslehre (Zurechnung, Rechtfert…


(373 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[English Version] Selbstgenügsamkeit, ethisch. S., von griech. αυ᾿τα´ρκεια/autárkeia (lat. sufficientia sui), bez. nach dem Ethos antiker Philos. die sittliche Grundhaltung, durch die der Mensch das Ziel seines Lebens, wahre Eudaimonie, zu erreichen sucht, indem er sein Glück in der Unabhängigkeit von äußeren Gütern und den Wechselfällen des Schicksals in der inneren Verfassung seiner Seele (: III.,3.) erstrebt, wobei S. in die Nähe der Tugend der Besonnenheit rückt (Demokrit). Xenophon zeichnet das Bi…


(150 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[English Version] Starbuck, Edwin Diller (20.2.1866 Guiltford Township, IN – 18.11.1947 Los Angeles, CA), amer. Pionier der Religionspsychologie und Päd. als entwicklungspsychologisch fundierter Erfahrungswiss. Nach glücklicher Kindheit in quäkerischem Elternhaus studierte S. in Harvard unter W. James und an der Clark Universität unter S. Hall. Seine mit der Fragebogenmethode arbeitende Diss. zur Bekehrung und Adoleszenzentwicklung gilt als die erste Buchveröff. (1899) der empirischen Religionspsyc…


(288 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[English Version] (franz. tact, lat. tactus, »Berührung, Tastsinn, Gefühl, Einfluß«) bez. erstens das praktische Urteilsvermögen, das die treffsichere Anwendung von Regeln im konkreten Einzelfall ermöglicht, indem es aus der Gesamtheit der Bestimmungsgründe schöpft, wie sie im Gemüt als allg. Regeln des gesunden Menschenverstandes bzw. der Erfahrung vorliegen, ohne zum Bewußtsein wiss. Klarheit erhoben zu sein (I. Kant). In sittlicher Hinsicht meint T. das feinfühlige Gespür für das Richtige und S…


(133 words)

Author(s): Huxel, Kirsten
[English Version] bez. den mehr oder weniger methodisch reflektierten Prozeß zur Findung eines logischen, moralischen, ästhetischen, juristischen etc. Urteils, der den geordneten Zusammenhang diverser Arbeitsschritte umfaßt, zeitlich strukturiert durch das Auftreten einer bestimmten Problemkonstellation als Anfangs- und deren vorläufiger oder abschließender Lösung als Zielpunkt. Voraussetzung hierfür ist in objektiver Hinsicht, daß die betreffende Problemkonstellation hinreichend klar identifizie…
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