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Galen of Pergamum

(1,847 words)

Author(s): Ihm, Sibylle
b. AD 129 in Pergamum; d. ca. AD 216; most prolific and versatile Greek medical author. Works Of the more than 250 medical, philosophical, and philological writings, barely a third have been preserved; most of these pertain to the fields of anatomy and physiology. Manuscripts The manuscript tradition is young. Many manuscripts date only from the 15th cent. In addition to the Greek manuscripts, there are numerous Latin translations of many of the works, and even some Arabic and Syriac versions of the principal works. Although some corrigend…

Avianus

(645 words)

Author(s): Ihm, Sibylle
early 5th cent. AD; Roman fabulist. Roman Grammarian and rhetorician. Works Collection of 42 fables in distichs, whose themes are drawn from the fables of Babrius. Manuscripts Of the more than 100 manuscripts, the older ones fall into two textual recensions (Σ and Δ), the younger ones conflate these. Works Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Fabulae Fabels 5th cent. AD Fables of a universally accepted morality Manuscripts Name / Number Dating Selection Content / Notable Features 1 Parisinus lat. 8093 9th cent. Contains the recension Σ 2 Vossianus Leidensis lat. Q. 86 9th …

Hippocrates

(2,170 words)

Author(s): Ihm, Sibylle
b. ca. 460 BC in Cos; d. ca. 370 BC; roughly 130 writings are preserved under his name; approximately half of these were compiled in Ptolemaic Alexandria in the so-called Corpus Hippocraticum ( CH); the rest are forgeries from a later period. With only a few exceptions nothing can be said about the authors of the individual texts. Works The CH consists of approximately 70 texts that differ strongly in form, aim, level of knowledge, and theoretical approach. No overall structure can therefore be assigned. The writings belong to different schools, primaril…

Babrius

(472 words)

Author(s): Ihm, Sibylle
probably 2nd cent. AD; Greek fabulist who wrote in a variation of the choliambic (i.e. limping iambic) verse, which he himself called ‘mythiambus’. Works Collection of 143 Greek fables. Papyri The papyri contain not only fragments, but also nearly complete fables. Manuscripts The first manuscript only came to light at the beginning of the 19th cent.; it was found on Mount Athos. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Μυθίαµβοι / Mythíamboi Mythiambi Mythiambs 2nd cent. AD Fables composed in mythiambs, whose themes are mostly drawn from those o…

Aesop

(757 words)

Author(s): Ihm, Sibylle
b. in Thrace; d. 564/3 BC in Delphi; Greek fabulist. Works Preserved are late collections of his fables which only contain a selection of his animal fables, as the ancient evidence shows. Manuscripts A total of more than 100 manuscripts are known; they can be grouped into three primary recensions. Translations Numerous partial translations and free adaptations have been published. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Μῦθοι / Mŷthoi Corpus Fabularum Aesopicarum Fables 6th cent. BC Mainly animal fables; the extant coll. dates from the Christian period Pa…

Phaedrus, Gaius Iulius

(546 words)

Author(s): Ihm, Sibylle
b. ca. 15 BC in Macedonia, possibly in Pydna; d. around the middle of the 1st cent. AD in Rome; Roman fabulist. Works First collection of fables in Latin literature, written in iambic senarii; in addition to the majority of animal fables, it also contains historical anecdotes, myths, comical tales, allegories, apophthegms by Aesop . The work is only extant in scholastic adaptations and excerpts. Its five books originally contained 160–170 fables. A Late Antique prose paraphrase contains 80 fables, of…

Plinius Secundus, Gaius (Plinius Maior, Pliny the Elder)

(1,153 words)

Author(s): Ihm, Sibylle
b. AD 23/24 in Novum Comum (Como); d. 24 August AD 79 in Stabiae during the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius; versatile Roman writer, author of an extensive natural history. Works Most of the works by Pliny the Elder are lost. These include: a textbook on tactics ( De iaculatione equestri liber unus); a book on the Roman campaigns in Germany ( Bellorum Germaniae libri XX); the continuation of the histories of Aufidius Bassus ( A fine Aufidii Bassi historiarum libri XXXI); a biography of his friend Pomponius [III 8] Secundus ( De vita Pomponii Secundi libri II); a book on rhetoric ( Studiosi libri III); a…