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Loanwords from Japanese, 19th-20th Century

(2,801 words)

Author(s): Ivo SPIRA
The most significant wave of borrowings from Japanese occurred as a part of the modernization of Chinese between 1895 and 1919. Borrowing continued until it ebbed away with World War II, only to resume more recently with the spread of Japanese technology and popular culture. Borrowing from Japanese meant a reversal of the direction of influence that had persisted since the 5th century, when the Japanese began to adopt Chinese characters to write their language. As a result of the use of Chinese …
Date: 2017-03-02

Calques

(3,203 words)

Author(s): Ivo SPIRA
A calque, also known as "loan translation", is a word or phrase that is created in (strict or loose) imitation of a model from another language, using native morphemes. The result may also be seen as a "semantic replica" (contrasting with "phonemic replicas" , usually called "loanwords"). In a narrow sense, "calque" can be used to refer only to strict imitations of the morphemic structure of the model, or it can be taken more broadly to include less strict imitations (as here). Or it could even include native creations that are semantica…
Date: 2017-03-02