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(1,496 words)

Author(s): Jörg Splett
1. Introduction. Freedom is the self-determination nation which stems from the transcendental openness of the spirit for the absolute and unconditional. Hence it appears essentially as freedom from outside coercion and thus as freedom or indifference with regard to possibilities that are open to it. It is liberum arbitrium, the power of choosing. This does not mean that the possibilities of choice are always of equal value. In the most important choice to be made by finite freedom, the choice between good and evil, one particular course is comman…

Anthropomorphism - Philosophical

(370 words)

Author(s): Jörg Splett
Part of Anthropomorphism: 1. Philosophical 2. Biblical To think of God with human form and qualities (anthropomorphism) appears at first sight merely as an instance of the general structure of knowledge, which is to assimilate the thing known to the knower (“quidquid recipitur ad modum recipientis recipitur”), with all the attendant risks and benefits. The advantage is that man draws closer to God, whom be knows not just as a vague and unattainable being or perhaps as the silence or demonic strangeness…


(4,504 words)

Author(s): Walter Kern | Jörg Splett
1. The problem of theodicy. It is not necessary to recall, much less demonstrate, that the world is stamped by misery and suffering, by evil in all its forms. There is no need therefore to “show the interest” of the question. It is an importunate one, today as ever at its most tormenting in the suffering of the innocent, especially what has been called the “absolute evil” of the suffering of children who are exposed to it not only inculpably but without even the possible defence of fleeing it. And t…

History - History and Historicity

(6,351 words)

Author(s): Adolf Darlap | Jörg Splett
Part of History: 1. History and Historicity 2. Philosophy of History 3. Theology of History A. Terms and Concept The words used throughout Europe for history come through the Latin historia from the Greek ίστορεΐν, to know, investigate, except the German Geschichte. The former group indicates rather the study or science of history, while the German envisages rather the event itself, first the individual occurrence and then the individual life-process and the total world-process. The humanists used the German Geschichte in the definitely scientific sense of historia. But Geschichte

Nature - Philosophical and Theological

(2,939 words)

Author(s): Jörg Splett | Juan Alfaro
Part of Nature: 1. Philosophical and Theological 2. Naturalism 3. Nature and Grace A. The Philosophical Concept The word “nature”, strictly speaking, means birth, going forth ( nasci, φύεσθαι). It is used to designate both the constant rise of the individual being in its reality (the essence as actively realized) or the totality of all beings in its constant course. This totality is understood either as self-explanatory (in the Greek notion of φύσις or in a pantheistic concept of natura naturans) or as creation. In the latter case, nature is understood as evolving in a proc…


(1,578 words)

Author(s): Francis O' Farrell | Jörg Splett
1. Introduction. Relation, from the Latin referre, bring back, indicates the respect or reference of one thing to another, their mutualinter-directedness, which is of decisive importance for the being and understanding of the world, since the unity of the multiplicity in the uni-verse is one of the basic elements of human experience. The multiplicity in unity of the world was called “cosmos” by the Greeks, meaning both the established order and the principle of order, the Logos (from λέγω, collect, gl…

Analogy of Being

(3,532 words)

Author(s): Jörg Splett | Lourencino Bruno Puntel
A. Introduction In the exercise of its freedom and knowledge, the human spirit stands in the light of what is unconditional, yet attains the plenitude of this latter only in and through the finite. By its very nature, therefore, it is subject to the law of analogy. Hence analogy is decisively located in the ontological relation between God and finite being and in the cognitive relation between the finite mind and each of these. In all this, analogy must not be regarded from the start as a derivative compromise and half-way house between univocity and equivocity. It mu…
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