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Perichoresis/Circumincession

(1,086 words)

Author(s): Jüngel, Eberhard
[German Version] (περιχώρησις/ perichṓrēsis), originally from choreography (περιχωρεῖν κύκλῳ/ perichōreín kýklō, “dance around one another”), denotes as a concept of reflection the reciprocal penetration, participation, and unification of values that are, and remain, different. Whereas for Anaxagoras (DK, frgm. B 59, 13f.) perichoresis still means the rotation that produces division (in polarities such as light-dark, ¶ cold-warm, spirit-body), in the Stoics and in Neoplatonism the inner relationship between body and soul is described as a perichoreti…

Schleiermacher, Friedrich Daniel Ernst

(8,015 words)

Author(s): Jüngel, Eberhard
[German Version] (Nov 21, 1768, Breslau [Wrocław] – Feb 12, 1834, Berlin). “He did not institute a school but an age.” What Schleiermacher, defining the concept of greatness, said of Frederick the Great ( KGA I/11, 489) could largely be said of Schleiermacher himself. No other theologian since the Reformation can claim comparable significance and influence. Even the most consistent alternative to his theology to date has to admit that “the man who could not only criticize Schleiermacher but be measured against him... has not yet appeared” (Barth, Protestantische Theologie, 381). More …

Genuineness/Authenticity/Truthfulness

(1,792 words)

Author(s): Jüngel, Eberhard | Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] I. Fundamental Theology – II. Ethics I. Fundamental Theology 1. Authenticity, or genuineness, or truthfulness (Ger. Wahrhaftigkeit), is regarded as being an existential attitude that a person has toward others, toward himself or herself and toward God. Essentially close to understanding truth as a consistency (of intellectus and res), authenticity is considered to be the consistency between a person's statements in life and that which is true, or which he regards as true – irrespective of the possibility that what he regards …

Eternity

(2,738 words)

Author(s): Braun, Hanns-Jürgen | Jüngel, Eberhard
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy/Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics I. Religious Studies Religious studies deals with eternity in the context of a discussion of sacred time. Though sacred time is grounded in eternity, it begins at the moment of the creation of the world. With respect to the world's fate, both optimistic and pessimistic voices are to be heard. Both positio…

Justification

(10,434 words)

Author(s): Tietz, Christiane | Klaiber, Walter | Jüngel, Eberhard
[German Version] I. The Term – II. New Testament – III. History of Doctrine – IV. Dogmatics I. The Term The earliest meaning of justification (like Ger. Rechtfertigung) was “administration of justice,” “legal process,” “execution of sentence,” even “capital punishment” (Elert), but early on it could also stand for defense and acquittal. In modern times it has come to be used only in the sense of vindication or legitimation. Hebrew צְדָקָה/ ṣĕdāqāh and Greek δικαíωσις/ dikaíōsis emphasize the declaration of justness, Latin iustificatio the creation of justness. The Old and…

Wine

(2,151 words)

Author(s): Staubli, Thomas | Janowski, Bernd | Figal, Günter | Jüngel, Eberhard
[German Version] I. Archaeology and Religious Studies The wild predecessors of cultured vines ( Vitis vinifera vinifera) are found especially in the north-eastern Mediterranean region and in the area of the Black Sea. The earliest evidence of collecting grapes, presumably from wild stocks, is 9,000 years old (Çayönü, Tell Aswad and Jericho). The earliest indications of vine cultivation come from the end of the 4th millennium bce in Egypt (Omari, Abydos, Saqqara). Grapes were eaten, but mostly made into wine; in southern Mesopotamia also into syrup for preserva…

Truth

(7,484 words)

Author(s): Jüngel, Eberhard | Koch, Klaus | Landmesser, Christof | Großhans, Hans-Peter
[German Version] I. Terminology and Problem ¶ The meaning of the word truth – Greek ἀλήϑεια/ alḗtheia, ἀληϑής/ alēthḗs; Hebrew אֱמֶת/ ʾĕmet; Latin veritas, verus – depends on the context where it appears. The meaning of the word truth in a particular context is not the same thing as the definition of the term truth; it is also not the same thing as the “function or role that can be or is ascribed to the expression or term . . . in the various contexts and discourses of daily life, the sciences, and philosophy (and theology)” (Puntel, 927). For Christian theology, the biblical use of the term truth is…

Evil

(4,189 words)

Author(s): Keller, Carl-A. | Miller, Patrick D. | Frankemölle, Hubert | Axt-Piscalar, Christine | Jüngel, Eberhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Philosophy of Religion – V. Dogmatics – VI. Ethics – VII. Judaism I. History of Religions From the standpoint of the study of religion, evil – which is offensive, threatens order and existence, and is therefore feared and avoided – is an aspect of hidden power that is uncontrollable and unfathomable, to which human beings feel exposed and by which the…

Faith

(25,125 words)

Author(s): Grünschloß, Andreas | Schulz, Heiko | Kaiser, Otto | Hooker, Morna D. | Jüngel, Eberhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Systematic Theology – V. Practical Theology – VI. Judaism – VII. Islam I. Terminology 1. Religious Studies a. As an emic linguistic term, “faith” is found not only in the context of the Christian West (cf. fides, foi, Glaube, etc.), but also in other religious traditions. The Sanskrit term śraddhā (cf. Pāli saddhā; Avestan zrazdā-) seems to represent an Indo-European etymological pendant to Lat. credo, as demonstrated by the possible reconstruction of Indo-Germanic * k'red-dhē-, “set one's heart o…

Death

(11,861 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Cancik, Hubert | Liess, Kathrin | Necker, Gerold | Goldberg, Sylvie-Anne | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies and History of Religions – II. Death and the Realm of the Dead in the Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. Philosophy – VI. Philosophy of Religion – VII. History of Dogma and Dogmatics – VIII. Ethics – IX. Practical Theology – X. Art – XI. Islam – XII. Buddhism – XIII. Hinduism I. Religious Studies and History of Religions 1. General Modern religious criticism regards religion as compensation for human anxiety in the face of death. …

Creation

(11,110 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Janowski, Bernd | Herrmann, Klaus | Wischmeyer, Oda | Gunton, Colin E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. History of Theology – VI. Creation and Preservation – VII. Religious Education – VIII. Islam – IX. Science – X. Art History I. History of Religion 1. Fundamentals Life, nature, the environment, the passage of time – these are everyday experiences for any society. But reality also includes the danger that this world may be imperiled or perilous. Chaos and death are part …