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(2,027 words)

Author(s): Jammer, Max | Schwarke, Christian
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Natural Sciences – III. Dogmatics I. Philosophy In philosophy, the concept of matter is used only in a metaphysical/ontological sense, in order to underlay spatial-temporal phenomena with a substratum. Thus, pre-Socratic natural philosophers already postulated the existence of a hýlē (ὕλη, Lat. materia, orig. “forest,” “wood”). For Thales, this was water, for Anaximander the apeiron (“indefinite”), for Anaximenes air, for Heraclitus fire, and for Democritus indivisible atoms moving across empty space. P…