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Laying-On of Hands

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Janowski, Bernd | Lips, Hermann v. | Biehl, Peter
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies The laying-on or imposition of hands is a physical gesture usually performed in the context of a ritualized series of actions or as a symbol by itself. It can be ascribed to a divine being conceived anthropomorphically. The ritual gesture is attested in many cultures, especially in the ancient Near East, but it is not universal – it is unknown, for example, in Buddhism and Islam. Its mean…

Psalms/Psalter

(13,915 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Janowski , Bernd | Hartenstein , Friedhelm | Janowski, Bernd | Häußling, Angelus A. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology and Scope The book of Psalms is a unique collection of 150 poetic texts compiled to make a work sui generis. Its Hebrew title תְּהִלִּים(סֵפֶר) /( sēper) tĕhillîm, “(Book of) Praises,” is already found at Qumran (earliest instance: 4QMa [= 4Q491] 174, 1st cent. bce). As in the New Testament occurrences from about a century later (Luke 20:42; Acts 1:20: βίβλος ψαλμῶν/ bíblos psalmṓ n), it appears to be used primarily in the technical sense of a scroll containing psalms (cf. the frgm. 4QPs), but it might also denote a form of the Psalter. In 11QPsa, a collections of psalms from the 1st century ce (see III, 2.a below), 3,600 tĕhillîm and 450 שִׁיר/ šîr (sg.; “songs”) are ascribed to David, who is characterized as a sage (11Q5 XXVII 2–11: Davidic Compositions). Some of the latter are identified as being intended for the temple cult (cf. Sir 47:8f.). To what extent the psalm tradition of Qumran presupposes the canonical Psalter is disputed. The titles

Stellvertretung

(2,811 words)

Author(s): Winter, Franz | Janowski, Bernd | Frey, Jörg | Schaede, Stephan | Pree, Helmuth | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichDer urspr. in der Rechtssprache beheimatete Begriff S. wird v.a. im Rahmen der christl. Theol. reflektiert, doch scheint er durchaus geeignet, auch in der Religionswiss. Anwendung zu finden…

Substitution

(3,183 words)

Author(s): Winter, Franz | Janowski, Bernd | Frey, Jörg | Schaede, Stephan | Pree, Helmuth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies

Lament

(3,175 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Janowski, Bernd | Bayer, Oswald | Baldermann, Ingo | Kuhn, Peter
[German Version] Lament …

Retribution

(4,477 words)

Author(s): Neu, Rainer | Janowski, Bernd | Bendemann, Reinhard v. | Volkmann, Stefan | Buß, Johanna
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Retribution – recompense of good with good and evil with evil, in religion as reward (Payment) or punishment for human conduct, imposed in this life or the next by God or fate – is an aspect of reciprocity, the principle of quid pro quo (Merit). Richard Thurnwald was the first to point out the significance of reciprocity for social action and worldview in ethnic societies. It goes beyond reciprocating with a gift or assistance, or exchanging daughters between exogamous groups; the moral, legal, and religi…

Vergeltung

(3,967 words)

Author(s): Neu, Rainer | Janowski, Bernd | Bendemann, Reinhard v. | Volkmann, Stefan | Buß, Johanna
[English Version] I. ReligionsgeschichtlichV. – die Erwiderung von Gutem durch Gutes und Bösem durch Böses, in der Rel. in Form von göttlichem bzw. schicksalhaftem Lohn oder Strafe für menschliches Verhalten in diesem Leben oder nach dem Tod – ist ein Aspekt der Reziprozität, des Prinzips von Leistung und Gegenleistung (Verdienst). Richard Thurnwald verwies als erster auf die Bedeutung der Reziprozität für das soziale Handeln und das Weltbild in ethnischen Gesellschaften. Nicht nur die Erwiderung …

Eternal Life

(6,584 words)

Author(s): Braun, Hans-Jürgen | Janowski, Bernd | Vouga, François | van den Brom, Luco J. | Necker, Gerold | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religions – III. Old Testament – IV. New Testament – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Dogmatics – VII. Judaism ¶ I. Religious Studies

Chaos

(3,417 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Janowski, Bernd | Yarbro Collins, Adela | Drees, Willem B. | Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Biblical – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics – VI. Science …

Hereafter, Concepts of the

(5,151 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred | Janowski, Bernd | Necker, Gerold | Haase, Mareile | Rosenau, Hartmut | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religions – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Art History I. Religious Studies All cultures have concepts of a hereafter or beyond (“the next world”), although they are extremely diverse. They involve a realm of existence different from the visible earthly world…

Psalmen/Psalter

(12,190 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Janowski, Bernd | Häußling, Angelus A. | Plank, Peter | Völker, Alexander | Et al.
[English Version] I. Begriff und Umfang der Psalmen/des PsaltersDas Buch der Pss ist eine einzigartige Zusammenstellung von 150 poetischen Texten zu einem Werk sui generis. Seine hebr. Bez. תְּהִלִּים (סֵפֶר)/(sepær) t ehilli^m, »Buch der (…

Weltbild

(9,960 words)

Author(s): Figal, Günter | Ahn, Gregor | Janowski, Bernd | D. Furley, William | Sellin, Gerhard | Et al.
[English Version] I. PhilosophischDas Wort »W.«, das schon im frühma. Deutsch nachweisbar ist, bez. i. allg. ein »vorstellungsmäsziges bild der welt, wie es sich aus der gesamtheit der welteindrücke und weltanschaulichen vorstellungen ergibt« (DWb 28 [= 14,1,1], 1955, 1553). So ist die Bedeutung des Wortes mit der von »Weltanschauung« verwandt und kommt in der Philos. auch meist zus. mit diesem vor. Dabei wird das W. sowohl als Voraus…

Worldview

(11,663 words)

Author(s): Figal, Günter | Ahn, Gregor | Janowski, Bernd | Furley, David J. | Sellin, Gerhard | Et al.
[German Version] I. Philosophy The word Weltbild (“worldview”; more lit. “world picture”) is already found in early medieval German; it is defined as a “conceptual v…

Human Beings

(18,165 words)

Author(s): Gregersen, Niels H. | Grünschloß, Andreas | Figal, Günter | Janowski, Bernd | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Et al.
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences and Psychology – II. Religious Studies – III. Philosophy – IV. Old Testament – V. New Testament – VI. Church History – VII. Dogmatics and Ethics – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Natural Sciences and Psychology 1. Evolution From the perspective of the natural sciences, the theory of evolution offers the most comprehensive framework for understanding human beings. It views the human species as a late product of a biogenetic process that began with the origin of life (VI) on earth some 3.8 billion …

Creation

(11,110 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Janowski, Bernd | Herrmann, Klaus | Wischmeyer, Oda | Gunton, Colin E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. History of Theology – VI. Creation and Preservation – VII. Religious Education – VIII. Islam – IX. Science – X. Art History I. History of Religion 1. Fundamentals Life, nature, the environment, the passage of time – these are everyday experiences fo…

Schöpfung

(10,029 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Janowski, Bernd | Herrmann, Klaus | Wischmeyer, Oda | Gunton, Colin E. | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich 1.GrundfragenLeben, Natur, Umwelt und Zeitenlauf (Zeit/Zeitvorstellungen) sind für jede Gesellschaft Alltagserfahrungen. Zur Wirklichkeit gehört aber auch das Risiko, wonach dieser natürliche Lebensraum bedroht und bedrohlich ist. Chaos und Tod gehören zum Kosmos (Welt). Die Realität ist ambivalent. Evolutionstheoretisch gehört zu den entscheidenden Symptomen der Entwicklung vom vormenschlichen zum humanen Existenzbereich, daß diese Risikoerfahrung ritue…
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