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Papremis

(88 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Πάπρεμις; Pápremis). Capital city of a nome in the western Nile delta, according to Hdt. (2,59; 63) with the cult  of Ares (= Horus?) at whose festival ritual mass battles took place. Hermotybians (Hdt. 2,165) settled in the nome of P., and the hippopotamus was worshipped there (Hdt. 2,71). In 460(?) BC, the Libyan prince Inarus defeated the Persians at P. Neither the etymology of P. nor its exact location have been conclusively established. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography H. de Meulenaere, s.v. P., LÄ 4, 666-667.

Tementhes

(154 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Τεμένθης/ Teménthēs). Egyptian king, according to Polyaenus, Strat. 7,3 (cf. FGrH 665 F 200) defeated near Memphis by Psammetichos [1] I with the aid of Carian mercenaries. T. is probably a Graecized form of Tanutamani, Egyptian Tnwt-Ymn, throne name B-k-R, the last king of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (664-656 BC, not in Manetho [1]) and successor of Taracus (Taharqa). In 664 BC, T. reconquered Egypt as far as the Nile Delta, with Necho [1] I being killed. Shortly afterwards T. was driven out by troops of Assurbanipa…

Actisanes

(47 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] According to Diod. Sic. 1,60, Ethiopian king who freed Egypt from the rule of one Amasis and founded Rhinocoloura (El-Arish) as a penal colony. Neither his historicity nor his chronological position are certain. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. Burton, Diod. Sic., Book I, 1972, 180 f.

Leontopolis

(345 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Egyptian city in the eastern Nile delta This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt City in the eastern Nile delta, east of the Damiette arm of the Nile, Egyptian T-rmw, modern Tell Moqdam; one of the largest hills of ruins in the delta. L. is documented from the Middle Kingdom, but the majority of finds and mentions come from the period after the New Kingdom. L. was of great significance in the 3rd intermediate period (1080-714 BC), when it was the residence of a local king. In the Ptolemaic era, L.…

Nitetis

(69 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Νίτητις/ Nítētis). According to Hdt. 3,1-3 daughter of the Egyptian king Apries; Amasis [2] pretended she was his daughter and gave her in marriage to Cambyses [2]; in response to this deception Cambyses attacked Egypt. In the Egyptian version she was the wife of Cyrus [1] I and Cambyses' mother. Although the name is Egyptian ( Njtt-jj.tj), the princess is not documented in Egyptian sources. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)

Necho

(316 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
Greek form of the name of two Egyptian kings. [German version] [1] N. I. Local ruler in the western Nile Delta ( Nkw). Local ruler in the western Nile Delta c. 672-664 BC, father of Psammetichus I, the founder of the 26th Dynasty. N. was the only one of the Delta princes to be pardoned by Assurbanipal despite his participation in an anti-Assyrian conspiracy and was reinstalled as ruler in Saïs. According to Hdt. 2,152,3, N. was killed during the Nubians' advance north (probably in 664 under Tanutamun). Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] [2] N. II. Egyptian king of the 26. …

Panopolis

(189 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Πανῶν πόλις; Panôn pólis). City in Upper Egypt, on the eastern bank of the Nile, c. 200 km north of Luxor, Egyptian Jpw or Ḫnt-Mnw, from this Greek Χέμμις ( Chémmis; Hdt. 2,91) and the modern name Aḫmīm. The name Πανῶν πόλις or Πανὸς πόλις ( Panòs pólis; 'city of Pan') is based on the identification of the main deity of P., the ithyphallically depicted god of fertility Min, with Greek Pan. Isis and (Min-)Horus were also worshipped in P. and the latter was presumably identified by Hdt. 2,91 with Perseus. The competitions in h…

Cynopolis, Cynopolites

(190 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Town in Upper Egypt The Greek town called κυνῶν πόλις ( kynôn pólis); ‘town of dogs’; Str. 17,812) was at times the capital city of the 17th nomos of Upper Egypt (κυνοπολίτης; Kynopolítēs) and according to Ptol. 4,5,29 was situated on an island. C. (Egyptian Ḥr-dj) is often mentioned in texts of the New Kingdom and was the cult town of the dog-headed god  Anubis. Under Ramses XI it was destroyed in a civil war. Its exact location is unknown, presumably it was near Sheikh Fadl where a dog cemetery was also found. Plut. De …

Philae

(276 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt | India, trade with (Φιλαί/ Philaí, Egyptian P-Jrk, probably a Nubian name). Small island at the southern end of the first Nile cataract, with a famous temple of Isis and a number of smaller sanctuaries. Blocks incorporated in the buildings, which show the names of kings, prove that there was a sanctuary under Taharka (690-664) at the latest, and a temple of Isis from the time of Amasis [2] at the latest. The earliest still visible buildings date…

Mnevis

(251 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Egyptian mr-wr) is the name of the holy bull of Heliopolis [1], which was worshipped in an animal selected for certain features (black coat, hair against the grain, particularly large testicles). The bull Onouphis (Ὄνουφις; Egyptian Wnn-nfr, a designation of Osiris) described in Ael. NA 12,11 may therefore have been a form of M. Theologically M. was considered the soul ( ba) of the Sun God and its herald (corresponding entirely to the relationship of the apis bull to Ptah). The cow goddess Hesat was regarded as its mother. The name M. is f…

Psammuthis

(44 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Ψάμμουθις; Psámmouthis). Ruler of the 29th dynasty, Egyptian P-š(rj-n) Mwt, rival claimant to the throne of Acoris [2] (presumably 393-392 or 391-390 BC), attested particularly in Thebes. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography J. D. Ray, Ps. and Hakoris, in: JEA 72, 1986, 149-156.

Theadelpheia

(74 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Θεαδέλφεια; Theadélpheia). Village in the Fayyum to the south of Lake Karun near modern (Baṭn) Ihrīt, founded under Ptolemaeus [3] II c. mid-3rd century BC and known from numerous papyrus finds. The chief deity was a crocodile god worshipped under the name Pnepheros. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Calderini, Dizionario, vol. 2, 1977, 240-248; suppl. 1, 1988, 135 f.; suppl. 2, 1996, 66 2 E. Bernand, Recueil des inscriptions grecques du Fayoum, vol. 2, 1981, 1-86.

Pathyris

(107 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Παθῦρις; Pathŷris). City in Upper Egypt c. 30 km south of Luxor near modern Ǧabalain. The name derived from an old sanctuary to Hathor, Egyptian Pr-Ḥwt-Ḥr ('house of Hathor'), from this also derived the Greek designation Aphroditopolis (Str. 17,1,47). In the pre-Ptolemaic period, P. belonged to the 4th nome of Upper Egypt. Under the Ptolemies, it was the main town in the new nome of Pathyrites. There are numerous Greek and Demotic papyrus finds from a military settlement dating to the 2nd cent. BC. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. Calderini, s.v. P., Di…

Catadupa

(46 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Name of the first Nile cataract on the border between Egypt and Nubia near  Elephantine, first attested in Hdt. 2,17. The name alludes to the noisy roaring of the water (Cic. Rep. 6,19). Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. Katadupa, RE 10, 2458.

Phacusa

(93 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Φάκουσ(σ)α/ Phákous(s)a and similar). Town in the north-east of the Nile delta, modern Fāqūs. Its ancient Egyptian name is unknown. P. is not attested until the Ptolemaic period. Str. 17,1,26 describes it - probably incorrectly - as the departure point of a canal from the Nile to the Red Sea (Ptolemaïs [4]). According to Ptol. Geog. 4,5,24, P. was the metropolis of the nome of Arabia. In the Christian period, P. was a diocesan town. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography St. Timm, Das christlich-koptische Ägypten in arabischer Zeit, vol. 2, 1984, 923-926.

Esna

(164 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[English version] (altägypt. Jwnyt, später ( T­)- Snj). Ort in Oberägypten, ca. 60 km südl. von Luxor auf dem westl. Nilufer. Nach dem kultisch verehrten Latusfisch griech. λάτων (πόλις) genannt. Die h. Stadt E. steht auf der alten Siedlung, daher ist von ihr nur der Tempel (9 m unterhalb des h. Niveaus) zugänglich. Die erste Erwähnung von E. stammt aus der 1. Zwischenzeit; bedeutsam wurde E. aber erst im NR als Ausgangspunkt einer Karawanenstraße nach Nubien. Hauptgott war der Widder Chnum (Chnubis),…

Neith

(209 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[English version] (Νηίθ; äg. Njt.t (?)). Äg. Göttin mit Hauptkultort Saïs im westl. Nildelta. N. war die prominenteste Göttin der Frühzeit (1. H. 3. Jt.v.Chr.), auf Denkmälern wie in Personennamen. Später (v.a. im MR und NR) trat sie hinter andere Gottheiten zurück; ab der 26. Dyn., als Saïs königliche Residenz wurde, war sie wieder von überragender Bed. N. war urspr. wohl Kriegs- und Jagdgöttin - ihre Embleme sind Bogen und gekreuzte Pfeile. Dieser kämpferische Aspekt ließ sie zu einer Schutzgöttin…

Aktisanes

(44 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[English version] Nach Diod. 1,60 äthiopischer König, der Ägypten von der Herrschaft eines Amasis befreite und Rhinocolura (El-Arisch) als Sträflingskolonie gründete. Weder Historizität noch zeitliche Stellung des A. sind gesichert. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. Burton, Diod. Sic., Book I, 1972, 180 f.

Letopolis

(194 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[English version] (Λητοῦς πόλις). Ort an der SW-Spitze des Nildeltas, äg. ( S) ḫm, h. Ausim (nw von Kairo), Hauptort des 2. unteräg. Gaus. Hauptgott von L. war der falkengestaltige Himmelsgott ( M) ḫntj-jrtj, der mit Anbruch von Tag bzw. Nacht seine Augen (Sonne bzw. Mond) verliert und wiedererlangt und damit den täglichen Kreislauf der Sonne symbolisiert. Später wurde er mit Haroeris gleichgesetzt. Hl. Tiere des Gottes von L. waren v.a. Ichneumon und Spitzmaus (erhalten sind zahlreiche Bronzefiguren, vgl. auch Hdt. 2,141). Dan…

Nilupolis

(104 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Νείλου πόλις). [English version] [1] Ort in Mittelägypten Ort in Mittelägypten, 13 km nördl. von Banī Suwaif, kopt. Tilodj, h. Dalāṣ. Der Ort ist aus altäg. Zeit nicht bekannt; in christl. Zeit war N. Bischofssitz. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [English version] [2] Dorf im Fajum Dorf im Fajum nahe Soknopaiu Nesos, h. Tall ar-Ruṣaṣ, mit Kult der Isis. Bekannt durch zahlreiche Papyrusfunde von der späteren ptolem. bis in byz. Zeit. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Calderini, s.v. N., Dizionario dei nomi geografici e topografici dell' Egitto greco-roman…
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