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Notitia urbis Constantinopolitanae

(78 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] The NUC is a description of the 14 regions of Constantinopolis with their churches, palaces, baths, etc., as well as a listing of municipal officials. This compilation, written in Latin, was drawn up under the Emperor Theodosius II around AD 425. Notitia dignitatum; Theodosius II Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography Edition: O. Seeck, Notitia dignitatum, 1876, 227-243. Literature: P. Speck, Zur Datierung der N.u.C., in: H.-G. Beck (ed.), Studien zur Frühgeschichte Konstantinopels, 1973, 144ff.

Zemarchus

(125 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] (Ζήμαρχος/ Zḗmarchos). Magister militum per Orientem under the emperor Iustinus [4] II, a Cilician by origin who led a legation to the khan Sizabulus of the Turks (AD 552-576) to the central Asiatic region of Sogdiana in the years 569-571/2, rather than 568/9. He took part in Sizabulus' campaign against the Persians, concluded a treaty with the Turks and returned after an adventuresome voyage over the Volga. The account of this legation is very important for its information about the T…

Germany

(31,487 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Johne, Renate (Berlin RWG) | Aurnhammer, Achim (Freiburg i. Br. RWG) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Holtermann, Martin (Mannheim RWG) | Et al.
Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) I. To 1600 (CT) [German version] A. History and Social Development under Carolingian Rule to 918 (CT) The coronation of Charlemagne as emperor (800) laid the foundation for the medieval German empire. In a lengthy process, the German people evolved from those Germanic tribes that had remained settled during the great migration of the peoples, together with some foederati, Rome's former allies. Larger communities developed around many villae, still evident in some place names, particularly in the Rhineland, but settlements also develope…

Lagodius

(65 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Spanish relative, probably cousin, of the emperor Honorius [3]; after the collapse of the resistance put up by his brothers Didymus and Verenianus against the usurper Constantinus [3] III in Spain in AD 408/9, he fled to the eastern part of the Empire (Zos. 6,4,4; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 9,12,1; cf. Oros. 7,40,5-8). PLRE 2,654; cf. 358, 1099, 1155. Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)

Historia Augusta

(1,505 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] A. Work Historia Augusta (HA) is the modern title of the Scriptores historiae Augustae (SHA), as Casaubonus in 1603, following the Vita Taciti (10,3), named the six otherwise unknown authors Aelius Spartianus, Iulius Capitolinus, Vulcacius Gallicanus, Aelius Lampridius, Trebellius Pollio and Flavius Vopiscus from Syracuse. They feature as the compilers of a collection of  biographies of Roman emperors, heirs apparent and usurpers from the time of Hadrian (AD 117-138) to Numerianus and Carinus (283-284/…

Gaiso

(110 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] AD 350 possibly magister militum of the usurper Magnentius In AD 350, possibly as magister militum of the usurper Magnentius, he pursued the fleeing emperor Constans, and killed him during his arrest in the Pyrenean town of Helena ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 41,23; Zos. 2,42,5). In 351, he was consul together with Magnentius (Chron. min. 1, 69 Mommsen). PLRE 1, 380. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Official under Honorius AD 409 Comes sacrarum largitionum under Honorius probably in AD 409, and comes et magister officiorum in 410 (Cod. lust. 4,61,12…

Avitus

(544 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Flavius Eparchius A. West Roman emperor 9.7.455-17.10.456 West Roman emperor 9.7.455-17.10.456, born c. 400 in Clermont. He came from a family of senators from the Auvergne, came to have some influence over the king of the West Goths,  Theoderic I and, as praef. praetorio Galliarum in 439, he negotiated a peace treaty with the king and persuaded him to join sides in the war against the Huns in 451 (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,295-355). In 455, A. was appointed mag. militum praesentalis by the emperor Petronius  Maximus and after the latter's overthrow was himself…

Vigilantia

(128 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Sister of the emperor Iustinianus [1] I, married to Dulcidius, mother of Praeiecta, of the magister militum and patricius Marcellus [7] and of the emperor Iustinus [4] II, who was born c. AD 510-515; she was still alive for his ascension to the throne in 565 and she had influence over him (Procop. Vand. 2,24,3; Victor Tonnunensis, Chron. Min. ed. Mommsen: MGH AA 2,206; Corippus, In laudem Iustini, praef. 21 f.; 1,8 f.; 2,283). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography A. Cameron (ed.), Corippus, In laudem Iustini (with an English translation and commentary…

Litorius

(84 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Comes and alongside Aetius [2], influential magister militum in Gaul, fought from AD 435 with Hunnic troops primarily against the Visigoths. L. subjugated Aremorica, laid waste to the land of the Arvernians, liberated Narbo from the Gothic siege and in 439 was captured near Tolosa and killed by the Goths (Chron. min. 1,475f.; 2,23 Mommsen; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,246-50, 300-303; Salv. Gub. 7,10). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 2, 684f. A. Demandt, s.v. magister militum, RE Suppl. 12, 553-790, esp. 666f.

Florentius

(359 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius F. Praefectus praetorio Galliarum AD 357-360 Was praefectus praetorio Galliarum from AD 357 to 360. At his instigation, Constantius [2] II had his auxiliary troops withdrawn from Gaul, which resulted in Julian's elevation (Julian. Ep. 282c; Amm. Marc. 20,4,2). In 360 Constantius appointed him praefectus praetorio Illyrici and in 361 honoured him with the consulate (Amm. Marc. 21,6,5). After Julian's victory he was sentenced to death in absentia by the Commission of Calchedon (Amm. Marc. 22,3,6). He is probably identical to the homonymous comes of Const…

Gerontius

(304 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Armenian, about AD 350, had great influence at the court in Constantinople Armenian, held his first office in the imperial administration in AD 356-357 (Lib. Ep. 538 Foerster), praefectus Aegypti in 361-362. In 364-365 (without office) he had great influence at the court in Constantinople (Lib. Ep. 1484 etc.). PLRE 1, 393 (G. 2). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Commander of the city of Tomi AD 384-387 Commander of the city of Tomi in AD 384-387. He had barbarians in Roman service executed for planning an assault…

Notitia Romae

(74 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] The Notitia regionum urbis (Romae) XIV, also known as the Libellus de regionibus urbis Romae, is the most comprehensive source for the administrative structure of the city's 14 districts and for the stock of buildings in ancient Rome. Its core description of the city dates back to the reign of Constantinus [1] I, with interpolations from the 4th cent. Notitia dignitatum; Roma Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography Edition: A. Nordh, 1949.

Honoria

(181 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Iusta Grata H., western Roman empress. Daughter of  Constantius [6] III and of  Galla [3] Placidia, elder sister of  Valentinianus III, born in AD 417 or 418 (Olympiodorus fr. 34 FHG IV 65; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 9,16,2), probably became Augusta before 437 (ILS 817f.). She was forced to take a vow of eternal virginity, but in 449 was expelled from court because of an affair with her procurator and she became betrothed to a senator. She then asked  Attila, king of the Huns, for help an…

Reparatus

(172 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Late-Roman senator, c. AD 527, praefectus urbis Romae Late-Roman senator, brother of Pope Vigilius, c. AD 527 praefectus urbis Romae under the Gothic king Athalaric. In 536, he was interned by the Goths in Ravenna. He fled to Liguria, and in 538, Belisarius appointed him praefectus praetorio (Italiae) in Mediolan(i)um [1] (Milan), where he was assassinated in 539 by the victorious Goths (Cassiod. Var. 9,7; Procop. Goth 1,26,1 f.; 2,12,34 f.; 21,40). Ostrogoths Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 2, 939 f., 1323  Rubin 2, 109, 126 f.  Ch. Schäfer, Der wes…

Heraclianus

(116 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Western Roman usurper in the year AD 413. He murdered  Stilicho in Ravenna in 408 and was rewarded for this by being named comes Africae (Zos. 5,37,6). In spite of the despotism he practiced there he was made consul in 413 (Oros. 7,42,10), but he revolted against  Honorius [3] and landed near Rome with a large fleet. He was defeated and condemned to death on the 3rd of August 413 (Cod. Theod. 15,14,13). He fled to Carthage, where he was killed (Oros. 7,42,14; Zos. 6,7ff.; Chron. min. 1,467, 654; 2,18,71 Mommsen). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 2, 539f. A. Deman…

Priscus

(884 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
Common Roman cognomen ('venerable') . Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek grammarian (Πρεῖσκος/ Preîskos). The 3rd cent. AD PTurner 39 (PIenensis inv. 267), a book catalogue from a private library, presents at line 4 'a commentary on epic verses by P.' [2], who is identified as one of the two Prisci mentioned in Ov. Pont. 4,16,10 ( Priscus uter); he may be identical to Clutorius Priscus, the Roman equestrian and poet mentioned in Tac. Ann. 3,49 and Cass. Dio 57,20,3-4. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 SH 710 A 2 R. Otranto, Antiche liste di libri su papi…

Iustus

(481 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Imperator Caesar C.P. Niger Iustus Augustus, Roman emperor 193-194 AD, see Pescennius see  Pescennius Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] I. of Tiberias Jew. historian, 1st cent. AD Jewish historian of the 1st cent. AD, wrote a ‘Jewish War’ (66-70/74), in which he dealt critically with the work of the same name by  Josephus [4] Flavius (this made Josephus write a retort in his autobiography: Vita 65), and a chronological-genealogical work on Jewish kings from Moses to  Iulius [II 5] Agrippa II. This work, which appears to…

Zenonis

(118 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] (Ζηνωνίς/ Zēnōnís). Aelia Z. Augusta, wife of the Eastern Roman counter-emperor Basiliscus (January 475 until August 476), who she seems to have influenced towards a pro-Monophysite church policy. Her son Marcus became co-regent, her alleged lover Armatus became head of the army and consul in 476. After the fall of her husband she and her son were banished with him and killed (Malchus fr. 8 = Suda α 3968, 3970 Adler; Candidus fr. 1 = FHG 4,136; Theophanes, Chronographia 1,121,124 f. de Boor = 187, 192 Mango-Scott). Basiliscus; Monophysitism Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) B…

Notitia dignitatum

(811 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] State manual or reference book for the internal use of Roman authorities in Late Antiquity. As shown by its full title Notitia dignitatum tam civilium quam militarium in partibus orientis/occidentis (‘Manual of civil and military appointments in the Eastern and Western parts), this two-part work provides an index of positions to be filled by the Emperor in the army and the administration of the imperium orientale (= or.) and occidentale (= occ.). The high civilian and military offices, beginning with the Praetorian and city prefects ( praefectus praetorio ; praefectus…

Flavianus

(513 words)

Author(s): Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio AD 222 or 223 Praefectus praetorio with (Geminius) Chrestus in AD 222 or 223. When upon the insistence of Julia Mamaea, Domitius  Ulpianus was put in charge by Severus Alexander as praetorian prefect, the guard mutinied, so Ulpianus had F. and Chrestus killed (Cass. Dio 80,2,2; Zos. 1,11,2). PIR2 F 180. Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) [German version] [2] Virius Nicomachus F. Pagan, aristorcrat in Rome; friend of Symmachus Dominant figure of the non-Christian aristocracy in Rome in the last quarter of the 4th cent. AD. He had a clo…
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