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Stein, Heinrich Friedrich Karl

(607 words)

Author(s): Jordan, Stefan
[German Version] vom und zum (Baron) (Oct 26, 1757, Nassau an der Lahn – Jun 29, 1831, Schloß Cappenberg, Westphalia). After being educated by a tutor, Stein studied jurisprudence in Göttingen from 1773 to 1777. After an internship with the Imperial High Court and a grand tour through Germany and Hungary, he entered the Prussian civil service in 1780; in 1782 he was appointed senior counselor of mines and in 1784 director of the Westphalian mining authority in Wetter an der Ruhr. In 1785 he was s…

Spiegel zum Desenberg, Ferdinand August von

(314 words)

Author(s): Jordan, Stefan
[German Version] (Dec 25, 1764, Schloß Canstein, Westphalia – Aug 2, 1835, Cologne), descended from ancient Westphalian nobility, buried in the choir of Cologne cathedral. From 1777 to 1783 he studied at an aristocratic boarding school in Fulda, then from 1783 to 1785 he studied law, political science, and economics in Münster, where he was appointed to the canonry in 1793 and elected dean of the cathedral in 1799. In 1796 he was appointed privy councilor in the secular district administration of …

Talleyrand, Charles Maurice

(232 words)

Author(s): Jordan, Stefan
[German Version] (Feb 2, 1754, Paris – May 15, 1838, Paris). Appointed bishop of Autun in 1789, as a supporter of the French Revolution he became a member of the Constitutional Assembly in the same year; in 1790 he became president of the National Assembly. When he swore to uphold the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1791, he was excommunicated by Pope Pius VI and was forced to resign from the episcopate. Suspected of royalist sympathies, he emigrated to England in 1792 and to the United States…

Prussian Church Dispute

(856 words)

Author(s): Jordan, Stefan
[German Version] Prussian Church Dispute, in a narrower sense also called the Cologne church dispute, was a series of conflicts between the Catholic Church and the Prussian state in the second quarter of the 19th century, revolving primarily around the issue of mixed marriages. I. In Prussia a declaration issued on Nov 21, 1803, regulated confessionally mixed marriage and the upbringing of the children of such marriages. On Aug 17, 1825, the stipulation that the children be brought up in the religion of the father was extended by order of …

Thiersch, Heinrich Wilhelm Josias

(332 words)

Author(s): Jordan, Stefan
[German Version] (Nov 5, 1817, Munich – Dec 3, 1885, Basel), son of the classical philologist Friedrich v. Thiersch (1852–1921). He began studying philology in Munich in 1833, receiving his Dr.phil. in 1838; in 1835 he began studying theology in Erlangen. He also taught at the Protestant mission center in Basel. In 1839 he became a lecturer at Erlangen, where he received his habilitation in 1840 and became a ¶ Privatdozent, lecturing on modern history and church history. In 1843 he was appointed associate professor. In 1849 he rejected a professorship at Marburg, …