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Utenheim, Christoph von

(182 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (c. 1450 in Straßburg [Strasbourg] – Mar 16, 1527, Porrentruy, canton of Jura), a Humanist, was rector of the University of Basel in 1473/1474 and bishop of Basel from 1502 to 1527. He had studied theology and canon law at Basel and Erfurt. He devoted himself to church reform, convoking a synod in 1503 and commissioning J. Wimpfeling to draw up statutes to govern the activities of clerics and to provide for regular synods. The reform foundered on the resistance of the cathedral ch…

Hemmerli, Felix

(189 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Latinized: Malleolus; Sep 11, 1388 or 1389, Zürich – 1458 [?], Lucerne [?]), canonist, priest (ordained 1430) and author. Hemmerli studied church law in Erfurt and Bologna and earned a doctoral degree in 1424. After 1412, he was a canon in Zürich and became cantor in 1428. He also held benefices in Solothurn and Zofingen. He participated in the Councils of Constance and Basel and promoted church reforms, on account of which an attempt on his life was made in 1439. In over 40 work…

Fricker, Johann Ludwig

(178 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Jun 14, 1729, Stuttgart – Sep 13, 1766, Dettingen unter Teck). As a student of F.C. Oetinger, Fricker was a major exponent of Pietism in Württemberg. He already came under the influence of Pietism during his theological studies at Tübingen (1749–1752). He undertook extended educational travels, e.g. to Moravia and Hungary. He tutored in Amsterdam and visited England in 1757/58, where he came into contact with Methodism (Methodists). In 1760, he met S. Collenbusch and G. Tersteege…

Brunnquell, Ludwig

(164 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (also: Scaturigius; Nov 17, 1631, Tübingen – 1689, Besigheim). This Württ- emberg theologian was from 1654/55 a minister in Großbottwar, Asperg and Löchgau, but after years of controversy with the Consistorium he was dismissed in 1679 as a supporter of Böhme and a dispensationalist. From 1685 he was a pastor in Flehingen (now Oberderdingen). He wrote several works, not all of which were published, and in 1677 he wrote a recommendation of P.J. Spener's Pia Desideria (cf. Spener, Theologische Bedencken I, 1, 1700, 341–352). The chur…

Strauß, Jakob

(189 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (c. 1480, Basel – after 1526), began his theological studies as a Dominican in Freiburg im Breisgau in 1516 and earned his doctorate in theology before he joined the Reformation movement in 1521. Initially he preached Reformation theology in the vicinity of Innsbruck. In 1522 he visited Wittenberg and then went to Wertheim am Main. From 1523 to 1525 he preached in Eisenach (Thuringia), where his 51 theses against the charging of interest triggered the “Eisenach usury controversy” …

Moser

(511 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] 1. Johann Jakob (Jan 18, 1701, Stuttgart –Sep 30, 1785, Stuttgart), teacher of constitutional law and adviser on political and legal matters, was an adherent of Pietism. From 1720 to 1726 he was active in Tübingen, Vienna, Stuttgart, and Wetzlar. From 1726 to 1727 and from 1734 to 1736 he was a senior civil servant in Stuttgart, then director of the university in Frankfurt an der Oder. From 1739 to 1747 he lived in the Pietist community of Ebersdorf (Reuß county). From 1751 to 1759 a…

Oecolampadius, John

(563 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (actually Häuschen/Heusgen;name Graecized from Haus-Schein, “House-light”; 1482, Weinsberg–Nov 24, 1531, Basel), Humanist who came ¶ on his mother’s side from Basel, and became Basel’s (Basel) most important reformer. From 1499 he studied philosophy, law, and theology in Heidelberg, where he was influenced by J. Wimpfeling among others, and in Bologna; from 1506 to 1508 he worked in Mainz as princes’ tutor. In 1510 he was ordained priest and occupied the office of preacher in Weinsberg. After le…

Burk, Philipp David

(164 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Jul 26, 1714, Neuffen – Mar 22, 1770, Kirchheim unter Teck). The son of a teacher, he attended school under J.A. Bengel, studied theology in Tübingen, and was for a long time curate to Bengel, whose daughter, Maria Barbara, he married in 1744. After pastoring in Bolheim (now Herbrechtingen) and Hedelfingen (now Stuttgart), he became dean of Markgröningen in 1758 and of Kirchheim unter Teck in 1766. A pietist, he composed songs, wrote sermon guides (including Evangelischer Fingerzeig [Evangelical Pointers], 7 vols., 1760–1766), …

Lotzer, Sebastian

(163 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Weygelin, Wergelin; Basty, Beste; c. 1490, Horb am Neckar – after 1525, Switzerland?). Between 1523 and 1525, Lotzer, a craftsman (furrier?) ¶ and lay theologian, published five pieces supporting the rights of the laity and the Reformation. Together with C. Schappeler he led the Protestant movement in the imperial city of Memmingen, where early in January of 1525 he participated in a disputation with Catholic traditionalists and helped introduce the Reformation. Writing in support of the rebellious peasants, the Baltringer Haufen, he composed the most import…

Roos, Magnus Friedrich

(182 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Sep 6, 1727, Sulz am Neckar – Mar 19, 1803, Anhausen [now Herbrechtingen]), was influenced by J.A. Bengel and became one of the important late representatives of Württemberg Pietism. He was active as a Bible expositor, authored about 50 edifying works, and engaged in controversy with the Enlightenment. After studying theology in ¶ Tübingen from 1742 to 1749 and holding curacies in Tübingen-Derendingen, Calw, Owen/Teck, and Stuttgart, he became a pastor in Göppingen in 1757, and pastor and dean in Tübingen-Lustnau in 1767. From 1784…

Pregizer, Christian Gottlob

(354 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Mar 18, 1751, Stuttgart – Oct 30, 1824, Haiterbach), studied Protestant theology in Tübingen (1768–1773), where he was influenced by Pietism. He served as a teacher in Besigheim (from 1783) and as a minister in Tübingen (from 1779), Grafenberg, near Nürtingen (from 1783), and Haiterbach, near Nagold (from 1795). He was active in youth work and was a popular pastor and preacher. Beginning in 1801, a group of Pietists formed around him who – in reaction to the moralism of the Enlig…

Hutten, Ulrich von

(599 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Apr 21, 1488, Castle Steckelberg near Schlüchtern, Röhn – Aug 29, 1523, Ufenau Island, Lake Zürich). The humanist, publicist and poet (Jul 12, 1517, Poet laureate) was one of the most important adherents of the Reformation from the German knighthood. Hutten lived and studied from 1499 in the Benedictine monastery at Fulda, where, because of his weak constitution and in accord with his father's wishes, he was to become a monk and later a prelate, and from 1503 he studied in Erfurt…

Sonntag, Karl Gottlob

(169 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1765, Radeberg – Jul 17, 1827, Riga), Protestant theologian inclined toward moderate rationalism (III); he left a deep impression on the ecclesiastical and spiritual life of Livonia. After studying at Leipzig from 1784 to 1788, he became rector of the cathedral school in Riga. He was appointed senior pastor in 1791, assessor of the Livonian supreme consistory in 1799, and general superintendent in 1803. He deserves credit for reshaping the liturgy, creating a hymnal, prom…

Schappeler, Christoph

(306 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (or Schepler, Latinized: Sertorious; 1472 St. Gall – Aug 25, 1551, St. Gall), Reformer of the imperial city of Memmingen, who played a role in the Peasants’ War. He studied and taught from 1498 to 1503 and from 1505 to 1510 in Leipzig (not Vienna), receiving his M.A. in 1501 and his licentiate from the theological faculty in 1510 (no doctorate in theology or law). From 1503 to 1505 and from 1510 to 1513 he worked in St. Gall as a teacher and then as a preacher in Memmingen, where …

Bolsec, Hieronymus Hermes

(83 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (died c. 1584/1585). The Reformation-minded former Carmelite from Paris went in 1550 as a doctor to Geneva. Arrested because of his criticism of Calvin's doctrine of predestination, he was expelled from Geneva in 1551 and later from Bern and Lausanne. His polemical biography of Calvin, written in 1577, influenced French Catholicism into the 20th century. Martin H. Jung Bibliography F. Pfeilschifter, Das Calvinbild bei Bolsec, 1983 P. C. Holtrop, The Bolsec Controversy on Predestination, 2 vols., 1993.

Heilbrunner, Jakob

(210 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (also: Hailbronner; Aug 15, 1548, Eberdingen – Jun 11, 1618, Bebenhausen), completed theological studies in Tübingen in 1573 and then, like many in his day, went to Austria and served as a pastor in Vienna, Riegersburg (Moravia), and Sitzendorf on the Schmida. In 1575 he became court preacher in Pfalz-Zweibrücken but lost that position in 1580, when the Count Palatine Johann moved from the Lutheran to the Reformed confession. From 1581 to 1585 Heilbrunner was general superintenden…

Pappus, Johannes

(168 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Jan 16, 1549, Lindau – Jul 13, 1610, Straßburg [Strasbourg]) studied in Straßburg, Tübingen (Dr.theol. 1573) and Basel. Beginning in 1570, ¶ he taught at Straßburg, first as professor of Hebrew, then as professor of history; in 1578 he was appointed professor of theology and pastor of Straßburg Minster. After the death of J. Marbach in 1581, as head of the church in Straßburg he suppressed the remnants of Reformed practice and enforced Lutheranism. This brought him into conflict with Johannes Sturm, who published an Antipappus in 1578. The church order of 1598 ac…

Hochstetter

(343 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] 1. Johann Andreas (Mar 15, 1637, Kirchheim unter Teck – Nov 8, 1720, Bebenhausen). Hochstetter was, as a leading churchman in Württemberg, the most important early proponent of Pietism in the region and was, consequently, called the “Württembergian Spener” already in the 18th century. After studying in Tübingen, he became a pastor there (1659) and then in Walheim, dean in Böblingen (1672), professor of philosophy (1677) and later of theology in Tübingen and general superintendent (16…

Komander (Comander), Johann

(300 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (actually: Dorfmann; c. 1482, Maienfeld, Switzerland – between Feb 15 and 21, 1557, Chur). The most important Reformer of the Swiss canton of the Grisons was probably the son of a hatter. He attended the Latin school in Sankt Gallen and studied in Basel from 1502 to 1505, where he was awarded the Baccalaureus artium. From 1512, he was at first curate and, from 1521, pastor in Escholzmatt near Lucerne. In 1523, already with Protestant inclinations, he was appointed pastor by the co…

Griesinger, Georg Friedrich

(164 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Mar 16, 1734, Dornhan-Marschalkenzimmern – Apr 27, 1828, Stuttgart) advocated in the Church of Württenberg a moderate Enlightenment theology (Rationalism: III), eschewing the doctrine of inspiration, but holding firmly to biblicism and belief in revelation, and authored many works of exegesis and systematic theology. After studying theology in Tübingen, from 1766 he was a minister in Stuttgart, and was Consistorial Councilor from 1786 until his retirement in 1822. He played a sig…
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