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Jäger, Johann Wolfgang

(303 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Mar 17, 1647, Stuttgart – Apr 11 [not: 2], 1720, Tübingen), Lutheran theologian, was the son of a Württemberg official. He studied in Tübingen, received the M.A. in 1669 and, from 1671, was tutor to two sons of the duke in Tübingen, whom he accompanied to Switzerland and Italy. As professor of philosophy in Tübingen (from 1678), he initially taught geography and Latin, then Greek, later ethics, and finally logic and metaphysics. He became professor of theology in 1690, received t…

Thumm, Theodor

(159 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Thummius; Nov 8, 1586, Hausen an der Zaber [Brackenheim] – Oct 20, 1630, Tübingen), served as pastor and dean in Stuttgart and Kirchheim/Teck; in 1618 he became professor of theology at Tübingen, where he served several times as dean of the faculty and three times as rector. He devoted himself to controversial theology, with polemics against Jesuits, Calvinists, and followers of V. Weigel. The same purpose was served by his dogmatic compendium Synopsis praecipuorum articulorum fidei, nostro seculo maxime controversorum (1625, 21626, repr. 1704). Thumm played …

Venturini, Karl Heinrich Georg

(306 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Jan 30, 1768, Brunswick – May 25, 1849, Brunswick). The son of a musician, Venturini studied theology at Helmstedt from 1788 to 1793, where he was influenced by H.P.K. Henke, a proponent of rationalism. To earn a living, he worked as a historical writer. In 1794 he was appointed as a lecturer at Helmstedt. From 1797 to 1799 he worked as a teacher in Copenhagen; in 1807 he was appointed pastor in Hordorf, near Brunswick. From ¶ 1844 on he lived as an independent scholar in Schöppenstedt, near Wolfenbüttel. He had tried unsuccessfully to find a job as a lec…

Heynlin of Stein, Johann

(182 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Latinized: de Lapide; also: Steinlin, Lapidanus, Lapierre; c. 1428/1431, Stein, near Pforzheim – Mar 12, 1496, Basel). Heynlin, a scholar broadly trained in philosophy and theology, combined traditional Scholastic positions and methods with a modern humanistic sensibility. He studied in Erfurt, Leipzig, Louvain, and finally in Paris, where he became rector of the university in 1469 and received the degree of Dr.theol. in 1472. In Paris he established the first printing-press. Fro…

Sonntag, Karl Gottlob

(169 words)

Author(s): Jung, Martin H.
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1765, Radeberg – Jul 17, 1827, Riga), Protestant theologian inclined toward moderate rationalism (III); he left a deep impression on the ecclesiastical and spiritual life of Livonia. After studying at Leipzig from 1784 to 1788, he became rector of the cathedral school in Riga. He was appointed senior pastor in 1791, assessor of the Livonian supreme consistory in 1799, and general superintendent in 1803. He deserves credit for reshaping the liturgy, creating a hymnal, prom…

Tier

(3,948 words)

Author(s): Peters, Ulrike | Riede, Peter | Jung, Martin H. | Kruk, Remke | Engels, Eve-Marie
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichV.a. in den Rel. der Naturvölker, aber auch in einigen Hochkulturen wird bestimmten T. aufgrund bes. Eigenschaften (Größe, Stärke, Gefährlichkeit, Fruchtbarkeit etc.), ihrer wirtschaftlichen Bedeutung, Fremdheit oder Vertrautheit für den Menschen eine bes., sakrale Bedeutung zugeschrieben und sie werden als Träger bzw. Repräsentanten oder Vermittler numinoser Macht verehrt (Gott/Götter/Götterbilder und -symbole). Dieses auch als »Tierkult« bez. Phänome…

Animals

(4,680 words)

Author(s): Peters, Ulrike | Riede, Peter | Jung, Martin H. | Kruk, Remke | Engels, Eve-Marie
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament and Ancient Israel – III. Christianity – IV. Attitudes toward Animals in Islam – V. Ethical Considerations I. Religious Studies Especially in the religions of primitive peoples, though also in some advanced civilizations, certain animals are attributed a special, sacred significance on the basis of their unique characteristics (size, strength, dangerousness, fertility, etc.), their ec…

Nazarener

(953 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred | Jung, Martin H. | McKinley, Edward H. | Bringmann, Michael
[English Version] I. Brüder von der Buße Brüder von der Buße (Büßer Jesu von Nazareth, Scalzetti [=  Barfüßer], Nazareni, Ordo Poenitentium a Jesu Nazareno, OPoen), 1752 in Salamanca durch den Spanier Juan Alonso Varela y Losada (1724–1769) gegründet; den Franziskanern nach Regel, Einrichtung und Tracht ähnlicher, kontemplativ-eremitisch geprägter Bettelorden, tätig in Volksmission und Armenfürsorge (bis 1854 viertes Gelübde: Verteidigung der Unbefleckten Empfängnis Mariä); v.a. in Italien, aber auch …

Nazarenes

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Eder, Manfred | Jung, Martin H. | McKinley, Edward H. | Bringmann, Michael
[German Version] I. Brothers of Penitence The order of the Brothers of Penitence (Penitents of Jesus of Nazareth, Scalzetti [= Barefoot Friars], Nazareni, Ordo Poenitentium a Jesu Nazareno, OPoen) was founded by the Spaniard Juan Alonso Varela y Losada (1724–1769) in Salamanca in 1752. It was a contemplative and hermetic mendicant order, similar to the Franciscans in rule, organization, and habit, and active in the mission to the people and care of the poor (with a fourth vow until 1854: defense of th…
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