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(2,024 words)

Author(s): Sandschneider, Eberhard | Junhua, Zhang
In order to prevent its downfall, the Qing dynasty in 1905 initiated a constitutional reform. Official delegations were sent to Japan and Western Europe to investigate the legal foundations of a parliament. In 1909, assemblies ( ziyiju) were established at provincial level. A year later, the Provisional National Assembly ( zizhengyuan) was convened in Beijing, consisting of 100 delegates nominated by the emperor and 100 delegates elected by the provincial assemblies. However, the plan to bring about a national parliament on the basis of these t…

Political Parties

(1,817 words)

Author(s): Gottwald, Jörn C. | Sandschneider, Eberhard | Junhua, Zhang
1. The Development of Political Parties in China In China, political parties are a phenomenon of the 20th century. The first parties were founded during the late 19th and early 20th century, most of them during the Revolution of 1911. During this time, China became a Republic and, for the first time, provided an environment in which diverse political parties could flourish. Between 1911 and 1914, there were more than 300 politically active parties (or organizations with characteristics of parties) in China, among these the Chinese Socialist Party ( Zhongguo shehuidang), the Republica…