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Pholus

(70 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φόλος, Latin Pholus). One of the Centaurs, son of Silenus (Silens) and a Nymph. When Heracles [1] is being entertained with wine by P., the other Centaurs attack them; Heracles repels them with poisoned arrows, by which P. is also wounded and he dies (Stesich. PMGF S 19 = 181 p. 162; Theoc. 7,149; Diod. Sic. 4,12,3ff.; Verg. G. 2,456; Verg. Aen. 8,294). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Mentes

(71 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μέντης; Méntēs). [German version] [1] Ciconian leader in the Trojan War Mythical commander of the Cicones in the Trojan War. Apollo assumes his guise to spur Hector on to battle (Hom. Il. 17,13). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Prince of the Taphians in the Trojan War Mythical Prince of the Taphiae. Athena assumes his guise to appear to Telemachus (Hom. Od. 1,105; 1,180; Mentor [2]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Polytechnos

(103 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πολύτεχνος; Polýtechnos). In Antoninus Liberalis 11 (after Boeus, Ornithogonia) the husband of Aedon and father of Itys. In revenge for the violation of her sister Chelidonis by P., Aedon kills their son Itys and serves him for P. to eat. In the end all participants are turned into birds, P. into a woodpecker [1. 87-89]. This is probably the purest form of ancient bird tale, which ultimately found its canonical form with  Tereus, Procne and Philomele (Ov. Met. 6,412-674) [2. 115-119]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 M. Papathemopoulos (ed.), Antoninus Liberal…

Phobos

(122 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φόβος/ Phóbos, Latin Pavor ). Personification of terror, esp. terror in war (cf. Aesch. Sept. 45); therefore, along with his brother Deimos, son of Ares and Aphrodite (Hes. Sc. 195f., 463f.). The brothers are found in Homer in connection with their father's chariot (Hom. Il. 4,440f.; 13,299f.; 15,119f.); they appear on the shield of Agamemnon together with Gorgo [1] (Hom. Il. 11,36f.), P. alone appears on the aegis of Athena (Hom. Il. 5,739) and of Heracles [1] (He…

Thaletas

(134 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Θαλήτας/ Thalḗtas; in some authors wrongly Thales, e.g. Paus. 1,14,4; Plut. Lycurgus 4), choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC, from Gortyn (in Crete). Besides Xenodamus of Cythera, Xenocritus [1] of Locri and others, he was involved in various musical innovations in Sparta in the generation after Terpander (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like these, he composed paeans (Plut. loc.cit.) and hyporchḗmata (Schol. Pind. Pyth. 2,127). According to later authors of musical theory, he introduced paeonic and cretic rhythms to Sparta…

Manto

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μαντώ; Mantṓ). Daughter of Teiresias, from Thebes, like her father gifted as a seer, priestess of Apollo Ismenios (Eur. Phoen. 834ff.). When the Epigoni [2] conquer Thebes, M. is consecrated to Apollo at Delphi (Apollod. 3,85; Paus. 9,33,2; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,308). Diod. Sic. 4,66,5f. calls her Daphne [2], and describes her as an excellent poet, from whom even Homer took some verses. Later, M. participates in the founding of the colony of Colophon [1] in Asia Minor (with the or…

Orthopolis

(55 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀρθόπολις/ Orthópolis). Son of Plemnaeus, the mythical king of Sicyon (Paus. 2,5,8). Demeter, in disguise as a wet nurse, saved his life (cf  Demophon [1], Triptolemus). According to Euseb. Chronicon 394 he was the twelfth king of Sicyon. Augustinus (Civ. 18,8) dates his reign to the birth of Moses. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Munichus, Munitus

(137 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μούνυχος/ Moúnychos, Μούνιχος/ Moúnichos, also Μόνιχος/ Mónichos, Μούνιτος/ Moúnitos). [German version] [1] Hero of Attica Hero of Attica, son of Pantades, eponym of the harbour of Munichia in Piraeus (Eur. Hipp. 761-763). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Acamas and Priam's daughter Laodice [I1] M. (Munitus): son of Acamas and Priam's daughter Laodice [I 1], brought up by his grandmother Aethra; died of a snake bite after the fall of Troy (Euphorion fr. 58 Powell), perhaps identical with M. [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] King of the Molossians Later sour…

Pasithea

(86 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πασιθέα; Pasithéa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1] Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1] (Hes. Theog. 246). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] One of the Charites (Graces) One of the Charites (Graces), promised in marriage by Hera to Hypnos (Sleep) in exchange for putting Zeus to sleep (Hom. Il. 14,267ff.; Paus. 9,35,4); in Nonnus (Nonn. Dion. 15,91; 31,121; 31,186; 33,40; 47,278), daughter of Dionysus and Hera, wife of Hypnos (cf. also Catull. 63,43; Anth. Pal. 9,517). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Menesthius

(84 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μενέσθιος; Menésthios). [German version] [1] Boeotian at Troy Son of Areithous and Philomedusa, from Ame in Boeotia, killed in Paris in the Trojan War (Hom. Il. 7,9; Tzetz. ad Hom. Il. 132). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Myrmidonian, a general of Achilles Myrmidonian, one of Achilles's generals in the Trojan War, son of Polydora and the river god Spercheus or the giant Pelor (Hom. Il. 16,173; Str. 9,433; Apollod. 3,168 with various genealogical and matrimonial variations for Polydora). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Polyctor

(72 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολύκτωρ/ Polýktōr). [German version] [1] Inhabitant of Ithaca In Hom. Od. 17,207 an inhabitant of Ithaca who took part in the building of the city well. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Peisander, a suitor of Penelope Father of Peisander [4]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Myrmidon Myrmidon; in Hom. Il. 24,397 Hermes pretends in a conversation with  Priamus to be the latter's seventh son. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Nannacus

(67 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νάννακος/ Nánnakos, according to Steph. Byz. Ἀννακός/ Annakós). Mythological king of Phrygia who supposedly lived to be over 300 years old. He predicted the flood of Deucalion and prayed with his people to be spared. Numerous proverbs relating to his great age and his tearful pleading are associated with him (Zenob. 6,10; Macarius Chrysocephalus 2,23; 8,4; Apostolius 15,100; cf. already Herondas 3,10). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oenone

(198 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Οἰνώνη; Oinṓnē). [German version] [1] Poetic term for the island of Aegina Poetic term for the island of Aegina (Pind. N. 4,46; 5,16; 8,7; Pind. I. 5,34; cf. Ov. Met. 7,474). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Nymph from the Troad Nymph from the Troad, daughter of the river god Cebren, sister of Asterope (Apollod. 3,154f.; according to Tzetz. on Lycophr. 57 daughter of Oeneus), mother of Corythus (Parthenius 34; Ov. Met. 7,361). Paris, exposed in the Idaean mountains, becomes her lover and spends his first love with her, but the…

Podaleirius

(210 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ποδαλείριος; Podaleírios). Son of Asclepius and Epione, brother of Machaon, and like him a heroic or divine physician (Hom. Il. 11,833; cf. ibid. 2,731). He is mentioned among the suitors of Helen [1]  (Apollod. 3,131). In the cyclic epics he heals Philoctetes (Apollod. epit. 4,8; cf. Soph. Phil. 1333), diagnoses the madness of Ajax [1] and is finally cast away in Caria, where he founds Syrnus (Apollod. epit. 6,2; 6,18; Paus. 3,26,10). Apart from that, like Asclepius's other child…

Nymphs

(305 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (νύμφαι/ nýmphai, lat. nymphae). Female nature daimones in human form. Νύμφη ( nýmphē) means ‘young woman’ or ‘bride’ (cf. lat. nubere: ‘to marry’), hence a ‘young woman of marriageable age’. In Homer the term is frequently used for human women (Hom. Il. 3,130; 9,536; Hom. Od. 5 passim), but the concept of nymphs as nature deities already exists as well (Hom. Il. 6,420; 20,8; 24,616 etc.). Nymphs are active wherever there is life in nature. Despite their divinity they are not immortal. They usually appear as groups, often a chain of dancers or t…

Proetus

(468 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Προῖτος/ Proîtos, Lat. Proetus). Mythical king of Argos (Hom. Il. 6,157; Pind. Nem. 10,77), or Tiryns (Apollod. 2,25; Schol. Eur. Or. 965), son of Tersander and father of Maera [1] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 170b), more commonly however son of Abas [1] and Aglaea (Schol. Eur. Or. 965; Paus. 2,16,2; Apollod. 2,24 f.). P.' conflict with his twin brother Acrisius originates as early as their time in the womb (Apollod. 2,24 f.) or after P. has seduced Acrisius' daughter Danae (Apollod. 2,34 f…

Prosymnus

(168 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πρόσυμνος/ Prós(h)ymnos; Prosumnus in Arnob. 5,28, wrongly Pól(h)ymnos in Paus. 2,37,5). Deity in the retinue of Dionysus. P. showed the god the entrance to the underworld at Lerna, when Dionysus wished to bring his mother Semele back from Hades (Paus. ibid.). The broader myth places P. in a homoerotic relationship with Dionysus: in Clem. Al. Protreptikos 2,34 (cf. Arnob. 5,28), P. promises to reveal the way if the god acquiesces to carnal pleasures. The latter agrees to do so on his re…

Phronime

(106 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φρονίμη; Phronímē). Daughter of Etearchus, the mythical king of Oaxus in Crete, and his first wife; mother of Battus [1], the mythical founder of Cyrene. Hdt. 4,154f. tells her story evidently according to a Cyrenian source: on the basis of a slander by his second wife, Etearchus hands his daughter over to the merchant Themison to be drowned. He does throw her into water in accordance with his promise, but pulls her out again. In Thera Polymnestus takes her as a concubine and fathers Battus with her. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography W. Aly, Volksmärchen, Sage und Novel…

Xenodamus

(107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ξενόδαμος; Xenódamos). 7th century BC Greek choral lyric poet from Cythera. In the generation after Terpander, together with Thaletas and Xenocritus [1] of Locri he took part in various musical reforms in Sparta (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like the other two he was a composer of paeans (Plut. ibid.), which in Antiquity were also classified as Hyporchḗmata (Plut. loc.cit.; [1. 82],  cf. [2. 15-17; 3. 99-100; 4. 335]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992 2 Id., Bakchylides und das System der chorlyrischen Gattungen im 5. Jh. v. Chr., in: A.…

Pontos

(37 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πόντος; Póntos). Greek personification of the sea (cf. Oceanus, Uranus), born of Ge/Gaia without spouse (Hes. Theog. 132); with her, P. fathered Ceto, Eurybia, Nereus, Phorcys and Thaumas (ibid. 233-239). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
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