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Xenodamus

(107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ξενόδαμος; Xenódamos). 7th century BC Greek choral lyric poet from Cythera. In the generation after Terpander, together with Thaletas and Xenocritus [1] of Locri he took part in various musical reforms in Sparta (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like the other two he was a composer of paeans (Plut. ibid.), which in Antiquity were also classified as Hyporchḗmata (Plut. loc.cit.; [1. 82],  cf. [2. 15-17; 3. 99-100; 4. 335]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992 2 Id., Bakchylides und das System der chorlyrischen Gattungen im 5. Jh. v. Chr., in: A.…

Onocentaur

(128 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (masc.) or onocentaura (fem.) (Ὀνοκένταυρος/ Onokéntauros, Ὀνοκένταυρα/ Onokéntaura). Mythological monster. The word is first found in the LXX, in which the name O. is used for the Hebrew word for 'jackal' (Is 13:22; 34:14). The Biblical explanation appears to consider the O. to be a demon (Theodoretus of Cyrus, Commentary on Is 13:22). In Greek and Latin non-Christian literature it is first found in Ael. NH 17,9: there its face is human, as are its body from the chest to the loins and i…

Priolas

(48 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πριόλας; Priólas). Local hero of Priola near Heraclea [7], brother of Bormus and Mariandynus (Poll. 4,55). Killed in battle; Heracles [1] takes part in his funeral games; every year ritual threnodies are held in his honour (Apoll. Rhod. 2,780-785 with schol.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Periclymenus

(108 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Περικλύμενος/ Periklýmenos, Latin Periclymenus). [German version] [1] Epithet of Pluto Epithet of Pluto (Hesych. s.v. Π.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Poseidon Son of Poseidon. In the war of the Seven against Thebes he kills Parthenopaeus (Eur. Phoen. 1156ff.; Apollod. 3,75). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Son of Neleus and Chloris Son of Neleus [1] and Chloris [4] (Hom. Od. 11,281ff.). Took part in the campaign of the Argonautai (Apoll. Rhod. 1,56ff.). Despite his ability to change form he was killed by  Heracles [1] …

Ariphron

(112 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] From Sicyon, choral lyricist (performance in Athens: 406/398 BC: IG II2 3092). Writer of a  paean to  Hygiea, famous up to the imperial period in many places. The poem, written in dactylo-epitrites pleaded for assistance from ‘Health’, personified as a deity (not yet genealogically connected with Apollo/Asclepius). It certainly belongs in the context of the Asclepius cult of Epidaurus and Athens [3]. Erroneously associated with  Licymnius [1; 2] by some researchers.  Choral lyrics Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 K. Keyßner, PhW 53, 1933, 1289-1296 2 U. v. Wi…

Polypoetes

(129 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολυποίτης/ Polypoítēs). [German version] [1] Participant in the Trojan War Son of Peirithous and Hippodamia [2], takes part in the Trojan War with 40 ships, mostly mentioned together with Leonteus [1] (Hom. Il. 2,740 ff.; 12,182 ff.; 23,836 ff.; cf. Apollod. 3,130; Apollod. epit. 3,14). According to Quint. Smyrn. 12,318, he was one of the heroes inside the Trojan Horse. After the war, he goes to Colophon with Calchas (Apollod. epit. 6,2) and founds Aspendus (Eust. ad Hom. Il. 2,740). He was depicted together with Acamas in Polygnotus' [1] painting in the léschē

Prosymnus

(168 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πρόσυμνος/ Prós(h)ymnos; Prosumnus in Arnob. 5,28, wrongly Pól(h)ymnos in Paus. 2,37,5). Deity in the retinue of Dionysus. P. showed the god the entrance to the underworld at Lerna, when Dionysus wished to bring his mother Semele back from Hades (Paus. ibid.). The broader myth places P. in a homoerotic relationship with Dionysus: in Clem. Al. Protreptikos 2,34 (cf. Arnob. 5,28), P. promises to reveal the way if the god acquiesces to carnal pleasures. The latter agrees to do so on his re…

Philodamus

(244 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φιλόδαμος; Philódamos). Choral lyricist from Scarpheia. He wrote a paean to Dionysus, recorded on an inscription, and performed in 340/339 BC at the theoxenia (sacred meal) in Delphi. In return, he and his family received a wealth of privileges in Delphi, where the poem appears to have played an important role in the new definition of Dionysus as a 'second Apollo'. By progressive stages the portrayal of Dionysus resembles the traditional picture of Apollo: the story of his birth m…

Nymphs

(305 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (νύμφαι/ nýmphai, lat. nymphae). Female nature daimones in human form. Νύμφη ( nýmphē) means ‘young woman’ or ‘bride’ (cf. lat. nubere: ‘to marry’), hence a ‘young woman of marriageable age’. In Homer the term is frequently used for human women (Hom. Il. 3,130; 9,536; Hom. Od. 5 passim), but the concept of nymphs as nature deities already exists as well (Hom. Il. 6,420; 20,8; 24,616 etc.). Nymphs are active wherever there is life in nature. Despite their divinity they are not immortal. They usually appear as groups, often a chain of dancers or t…

Merops

(177 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μέροψ/Mérops). [German version] [1] Mythical king of the Meropians Mythical king of the Meropians on the island of Cos (Q. Smyrn. 8,6,71). From grief and longing for his spouse Echemeia, who had been sent to Hades, he is transformed into an eagle by Hera, and finally catasterized (Hyg. Astr. 2,16). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Eumelus Father of Eumelus [2] (Antoninus Liberalis 15; Agron [1]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Mythical king of the Ethiopians Mythical king of the Ethiopians, husband of Clymene [1] (Ov. Met. 1,755f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Membliarus

(50 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μεμβλίαρος; Memblíaros, also Βλίαρος; Blíaros). Mythical Phoenician settler, member of the expedition undertaken by Cadmus [1] in search of his sister Europa [2]. He stayed behind on the island of Thera, whence he colonised the nearby island of Anaphe (Hdt. 4,147; Paus. 3,1,7f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Orbona

(73 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] Roman goddess. Her name is derived from orbus ('childless') and explained as an evil power that robs parents of their children. To appease her, a sanctuary was dedicated to her near the temple of the Lares (Cic. Nat. D. 3,63; Plin. HN 2,16; Tert. Ad nat. 2,15,2). According to Arnob. 4,7, she was the goddess of parents who have lost their children. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography Latte, 53  Radke, 240f.

Polyphemus

(485 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολύφημος/ Polýphēmos, Latin Polyphemus). [German version] [1] Lapith, Argonaut who fought agains the centaurs A Lapith (Lapithae) from Larisa in Thessaly, son of Elatus [2] and Hippea (the daughter of Anthippus), brother of Caeneus. P. fought against the centaurs (Hom. Il. 1,264) and was one of the Argonauts (Apoll. Rhod. 1,40-44). Having stayed behind in Mysia with Heracles [1] in search of Hylas, he founded Cius und fell in battle against the Chalybes (Apoll. Rhod. l.c. und 1,1240 ff.; Apollod. 1,113 und 117). In Euphorion he is the son of Poseidon and lover of Hyl…

Phronime

(106 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φρονίμη; Phronímē). Daughter of Etearchus, the mythical king of Oaxus in Crete, and his first wife; mother of Battus [1], the mythical founder of Cyrene. Hdt. 4,154f. tells her story evidently according to a Cyrenian source: on the basis of a slander by his second wife, Etearchus hands his daughter over to the merchant Themison to be drowned. He does throw her into water in accordance with his promise, but pulls her out again. In Thera Polymnestus takes her as a concubine and fathers Battus with her. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography W. Aly, Volksmärchen, Sage und Novel…

Proetus

(468 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Προῖτος/ Proîtos, Lat. Proetus). Mythical king of Argos (Hom. Il. 6,157; Pind. Nem. 10,77), or Tiryns (Apollod. 2,25; Schol. Eur. Or. 965), son of Tersander and father of Maera [1] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 170b), more commonly however son of Abas [1] and Aglaea (Schol. Eur. Or. 965; Paus. 2,16,2; Apollod. 2,24 f.). P.' conflict with his twin brother Acrisius originates as early as their time in the womb (Apollod. 2,24 f.) or after P. has seduced Acrisius' daughter Danae (Apollod. 2,34 f…

Podaleirius

(210 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ποδαλείριος; Podaleírios). Son of Asclepius and Epione, brother of Machaon, and like him a heroic or divine physician (Hom. Il. 11,833; cf. ibid. 2,731). He is mentioned among the suitors of Helen [1]  (Apollod. 3,131). In the cyclic epics he heals Philoctetes (Apollod. epit. 4,8; cf. Soph. Phil. 1333), diagnoses the madness of Ajax [1] and is finally cast away in Caria, where he founds Syrnus (Apollod. epit. 6,2; 6,18; Paus. 3,26,10). Apart from that, like Asclepius's other child…

Nyctimene

(41 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νυκτιμένη/ Nyktiménē). Daughter of Epopeus, the mythological king of Lesbos; after seducing her father (or being raped by her father) she is transformed into an owl by Athena (Ov. Met. 2,590ff.; Hyg. Fab. 204; 253). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oeleus

(84 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (ᾨλεύς/ Ōileús). Mythological king of Locris [1], son of Hodoedocus and Agrianome or Laonome, the daughter of Perseon; also son of Apollo (Hyg. Fab. 161); son of Eriopis, father, by her, of 'Little' Ajax [2], also father of Medon (illegitimate, by Rhene). He was one of the Argonauts (Hom. Il. 2,726-728; 13,694-696, Apoll. Rhod. 1,74-76; Hes. Cat. 82). For the original form of the name (ιλεύς) and its meaning see [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 W.A. Oldfather, s.v. O., RE 17, 2175-2187.

Phlegyas

(116 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φλεγύας; Phlegýas). Eponym of the Phlegyans, a mythical people in Thessalia (Hom. Il. 13,302), also localized in Boeotia, Phocis or Epidaurus (Erythraean Paean [1. 372-374]). Son of Ares and Dotis, father of Ixion (Eur. TrGF fr. 424) and Coronis [1], mother of Asclepius (H. Hom. 16; Pind. Pyth. 3,8-11; Isyllos IG IV2 1, 128,37-56 = Paean 40 E Käppel [1. 382]). The Phlegyans were a people of brigands (H. Hom. 3,278), and P. himself set fire to the temple of Apollo in Delphi, thus becoming one of the penitents in the Underworld (…

Isyllus

(277 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἴσυλλος; Ísyllos) from Epidaurus, son of Socrates. Around 300 BC, poet of a consecutive series of poems (in trochaic tetrametres, dactylic hexametres, ionics, elegiac distichs), extant as inscriptions, for the cult of  Asclepius of  Epidaurus (IG IV 12 128 = [1. 380-383]). In these, I. creates on the one hand a specific Epidaurian mythology of Asclepius, which relocates the roots of the god to the healing sanctuary that had been of increasing importance since the 5th cent. BC. The traditional myth, on the other hand…
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