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Polyxo

(198 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολυξώ/ Polyxṓ). [German version] [1] One of the Hyades One of the Hyades. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Mother of Antiope Wife of Nycteus, mother of Antiope [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Wife of Tlepolemus Wife of Tlepolemus. After he fell in the Trojan War, she holds funeral games for him in Rhodes where she had fled with him from Argos. When her friend Helena [1] flees to her, she has her - as the guilty party in the war in which her husband died - hanged on a tree by female servants dressed as Erinyes…

Nannacus

(67 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νάννακος/ Nánnakos, according to Steph. Byz. Ἀννακός/ Annakós). Mythological king of Phrygia who supposedly lived to be over 300 years old. He predicted the flood of Deucalion and prayed with his people to be spared. Numerous proverbs relating to his great age and his tearful pleading are associated with him (Zenob. 6,10; Macarius Chrysocephalus 2,23; 8,4; Apostolius 15,100; cf. already Herondas 3,10). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Trophonius

(575 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Τροφώνιος/ Trophṓnios, or Τρεφώνιος/ Trephṓnios). Hero of the Boeotian Lebadia, stepson or brother of Agamedes (Paus. 9,37,5; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 508). The following are mentioned as parents: Apollo and Epicaste (Paus. loc. cit.; schol. Aristoph. loc .cit.), Zeus and Iocaste (schol. Aristoph. loc. cit.), Valens/Ischys and Coronis [1] (Cic. Nat. D. 3,56), Erigonus (Hom. h. 3,296 f.; Paus. 9,37,4 f., etc.). Children: Alcander [1] and Hercyra. In the myth, T. and Agamedes are the famous builders of Delphi's first temple of Apollo  (Hom. h. 3,2…

Phemonoe

(59 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φημονόη/ Phēmonóē). Daughter of Apollo; she was his first seer (Pythia) in Delphi and invented the hexameter verse; the maxim 'know yourself'(γνῶθι σεαυτόν/ gnôthi seautón) is supposed to have come from her (Paus. 10,5,4; 10,6,3; 10,12,5; Str. 9,3,5). Her name is also widely used to mean a prophetess (Luc. 5,126. 185; Stat. Silv. 2,2,39). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Mantius

(46 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μάντιος; Mántios). Son of the seer Melampus, brother of Antiphates, father of Cleitus [1] and of the seer Polypheides (Hom. Od. 15,242ff.), according to Paus. 6,17,6 also of Oïcles (who in Hom. ibid. is his nephew), grandfather of Theoclymenus. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oenone

(198 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Οἰνώνη; Oinṓnē). [German version] [1] Poetic term for the island of Aegina Poetic term for the island of Aegina (Pind. N. 4,46; 5,16; 8,7; Pind. I. 5,34; cf. Ov. Met. 7,474). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Nymph from the Troad Nymph from the Troad, daughter of the river god Cebren, sister of Asterope (Apollod. 3,154f.; according to Tzetz. on Lycophr. 57 daughter of Oeneus), mother of Corythus (Parthenius 34; Ov. Met. 7,361). Paris, exposed in the Idaean mountains, becomes her lover and spends his first love with her, but the…

Mnemon

(81 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μνήμων; Mnḗmōn). [German version] [1] Slave of Achilles Slave of Achilles [1] whose sole responsibility it was to warn his master not to kill any of Apollo's offspring as he was predestined to die soon thereafter. He forgets to issue the warning when Achilles is fighting Cycnus [2] and Tennes and is consequently put to death (Lycoph. 240-242 with schol. ad loc.; Plut. Quaest. Graec. 28). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] see Artaxerxes [2] II see Artaxerxes [2] II

Phylacus

(188 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φύλακος; Phýlakos). [German version] [1] Mythical founder and eponym of Phylacia Mythical founder and eponym of Phylacia (in Attica), also of Phylace [1]. Son of Deïon(eus) [1] and Diomede, the daughter of Xuthus (Apollod. 1,51; 86), father of Iphiclus (Hom. Il. 2,705; 13,698) and Alcimede (Apoll. Rhod. 1,47). P. caused the infertility of his son by threatening him with a knife bloody from castrating rams. After Melampus [1] heals Iphiclus in the course of his brother Bias [1]'s battle for Iphiclus's oxen…

Lucretia

(223 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Wife of Numa Pompilius Wife of Numa Pompilius, mother of Pompilia, grandmother of Ancus Marcius [I 3] (Plut. Numa 21,2). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Collatinus Wife of Collatinus. Raped by the Roman prince Sex. Tarquinius, she commits her husband with L. Iunius [I 4] Brutus and P. Valerius to revenge and kills herself. This incident initiates the expulsion of the Tarquinians from Rome and with it the fall of rule by kings (Liv. 1,57-60 [1]; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,64,4-67,4; Ov. Fast.…

Maneros

(102 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μανερῶς; Manerôs Hdt. 2,79; Μανέρως; Manérōs Plut. Is. 17,367 etc.). According to Hdt. l.c. M. is the only son of the first king of Egypt who, after his early death, is honoured by a dirge ‘M., which is said to correspond to the Greek Linus song. M. means either Egyptian mniw-r‘gooseherd (Cerny) or r jmntt r jmntt‘westward! westward! (Lloyd), a cry heard at funerals. It is not clear which Egyptian name or which sequence of Egyptian words was garbled to form Greek M. [1. 338]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 A. B. Lloyd, Herodotus, Book 2. Commentary 1-98, 1976.

Pleisthenes

(204 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πλεισθένης; Pleisthénēs). [German version] [1] Son of Pelops or Atreus, father of Agamemnon and Menelaus Mythical figure from the family of Pelops, often also named as the family's eponym (Aesch. Ag. 1569 etc.): either the son of Pelops and Hippodameia [1] (with Atreus, Thyestes and Pittheus as brothers; schol. Pind. O. 1,144), or the son of Atreus and Cleola born in exile in Macestus (Triphylia), father of Agamemnon and Menelaus [1] (schol. Eur. Or. 4), or husband of Aërope and father by her of Agamemnon and…

Perigune

(59 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Περιγούνη; Perigoúnē). Daughter of Sinis, who was struck dead by  Theseus; with the latter, mother of Melanippus [3]. Later she became the wife of Deioneus, the son of Eurytus [1] of Oechalia, and with him the mother of Nisus [1] of Megara (Plut. Theseus 8, p. 4c-d; Athen. 13,557a; Hyg. Fab. 198,1). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Naoclus

(24 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νάοκλος; Náoklos). Son of Codrus, led Athenian emigrants to Teos (Paus. 7,3,6). Str. 14,1,3 calls him Nauclus. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Pandocus

(74 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πάνδοκος; Pándokos). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, wounded by the Telamonian Aias [1] (Hom. Il. 11,490). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Palaestra Father of Palaestra who was loved by Hermes. P. lived at a crossroads and killed the wanderers staying with him, for which he was killed by Hermes at Palaestra's request. The guesthouses are called after him pandokeîa ('accepting everyone'; Serv. Aen. 8,138; EM 647,56). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Oicles

(69 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀϊκλῆς/ Oïklês, Οἰκλῆς/ Oiklês). Mythical seer from Argus, grandson of Melampus [1], son of Antiphates or Mantius, husband of Hypermestra [2], father of Amphiaraus and Iphianira (cf. Hom. Od. 15,241ff.; Pind. Pyth. 8,39; Diod. Sic. 4,68,4f.). O. took part in Heracles' [1] campaign against Troy (Apollod. 2,134; Hom. Od. 15,243); his grave is supposed to have been in Arcadia (Paus. 8,36,6; Apollod. 3,87). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Orthopolis

(55 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀρθόπολις/ Orthópolis). Son of Plemnaeus, the mythical king of Sicyon (Paus. 2,5,8). Demeter, in disguise as a wet nurse, saved his life (cf  Demophon [1], Triptolemus). According to Euseb. Chronicon 394 he was the twelfth king of Sicyon. Augustinus (Civ. 18,8) dates his reign to the birth of Moses. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Orsilochus

(97 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ὀρσίλοχος/ Orsílochos). [German version] [1] King of Pherae Mythical king of Pherae, son of the river god Alpheius and Telegone, father of Diocles [2]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Fought at Troy Son of Diocles [2], fought at Troy and was killed by Aeneas [1] (Hom. Il. 5,541ff.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan, killed by Teucer Trojan killed by Teucer (Hom. Il. 8,274). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Trojan in the entourage of Aeneas Trojan in the entourage of Aeneas [1], killed by Camilla (Verg. Aen. 11,636, 690, 694). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Polyctor

(72 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολύκτωρ/ Polýktōr). [German version] [1] Inhabitant of Ithaca In Hom. Od. 17,207 an inhabitant of Ithaca who took part in the building of the city well. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Peisander, a suitor of Penelope Father of Peisander [4]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Myrmidon Myrmidon; in Hom. Il. 24,397 Hermes pretends in a conversation with  Priamus to be the latter's seventh son. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Pasithea

(86 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πασιθέα; Pasithéa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1] Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1] (Hes. Theog. 246). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] One of the Charites (Graces) One of the Charites (Graces), promised in marriage by Hera to Hypnos (Sleep) in exchange for putting Zeus to sleep (Hom. Il. 14,267ff.; Paus. 9,35,4); in Nonnus (Nonn. Dion. 15,91; 31,121; 31,186; 33,40; 47,278), daughter of Dionysus and Hera, wife of Hypnos (cf. also Catull. 63,43; Anth. Pal. 9,517). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

First man

(404 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] Graeco-Roman antiquity had no conception of a 'first man' in the sense of the Judaeo-Christian myth of Adam and Eve. The first point of comparison appears with the myth of the Ages of Man in Hes. Op. 109-200. According to this, there were various races of men during the Golden, Silver, Bronze, Heroic and (present) Iron Ages (Period, Era), each of which (except the last) was superseded by the next. While the first two demonstrated characteristics that were rather superhuman and uto…
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