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Orthopolis

(55 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὀρθόπολις/ Orthópolis). Son of Plemnaeus, the mythical king of Sicyon (Paus. 2,5,8). Demeter, in disguise as a wet nurse, saved his life (cf  Demophon [1], Triptolemus). According to Euseb. Chronicon 394 he was the twelfth king of Sicyon. Augustinus (Civ. 18,8) dates his reign to the birth of Moses. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Orsilochus

(97 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ὀρσίλοχος/ Orsílochos). [German version] [1] King of Pherae Mythical king of Pherae, son of the river god Alpheius and Telegone, father of Diocles [2]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Fought at Troy Son of Diocles [2], fought at Troy and was killed by Aeneas [1] (Hom. Il. 5,541ff.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan, killed by Teucer Trojan killed by Teucer (Hom. Il. 8,274). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Trojan in the entourage of Aeneas Trojan in the entourage of Aeneas [1], killed by Camilla (Verg. Aen. 11,636, 690, 694). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Polyctor

(72 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πολύκτωρ/ Polýktōr). [German version] [1] Inhabitant of Ithaca In Hom. Od. 17,207 an inhabitant of Ithaca who took part in the building of the city well. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Peisander, a suitor of Penelope Father of Peisander [4]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Myrmidon Myrmidon; in Hom. Il. 24,397 Hermes pretends in a conversation with  Priamus to be the latter's seventh son. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Pasithea

(86 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πασιθέα; Pasithéa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1] Daughter of Nereus and Doris [I 1] (Hes. Theog. 246). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] One of the Charites (Graces) One of the Charites (Graces), promised in marriage by Hera to Hypnos (Sleep) in exchange for putting Zeus to sleep (Hom. Il. 14,267ff.; Paus. 9,35,4); in Nonnus (Nonn. Dion. 15,91; 31,121; 31,186; 33,40; 47,278), daughter of Dionysus and Hera, wife of Hypnos (cf. also Catull. 63,43; Anth. Pal. 9,517). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

First man

(404 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] Graeco-Roman antiquity had no conception of a 'first man' in the sense of the Judaeo-Christian myth of Adam and Eve. The first point of comparison appears with the myth of the Ages of Man in Hes. Op. 109-200. According to this, there were various races of men during the Golden, Silver, Bronze, Heroic and (present) Iron Ages (Period, Era), each of which (except the last) was superseded by the next. While the first two demonstrated characteristics that were rather superhuman and uto…

Ocnus

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὄκνος/ Óknos, Latin Ocnus). 'One who hesitates', 'one who wavers': character punished in the Underworld; he is forced to twist a rope forever, which is then devoured by a donkey standing behind him (cf. Danaids, Sisyphus, Tantalus; Prop. 4,3,21f.). According to Paus. 10,29,1f., O. was a symbol of a hard-working man whose wasteful wife kept using up what he had earned. Other versions: O. sits helpless before a donkey that has stumbled, as its load of wood falls to the ground (Apul. M…

Phorcides

(40 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φορκίδες/ Phorkídes, also Φορκυνίδες/ Phorkynídes or Φορκυνάδες/ Phorkynádes). Daughters of Phorcys [1], viz. the Gorgons (Gorgo [1]) and the Graeae; the latter were brought to the stage by Aeschylus in his Phorcides (TrGF 3 F 261f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Nauplius

(239 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ναύπλιος; Naúplios). [German version] [1] Hero who founded Nauplia Son of Poseidon and Amymone. Born in Argos, he founded Nauplia (Paus. 2,38,2; 4,35,2) on the other side of the Gulf of Argolis. He was a famous sailor and represented the prototype of the slave-trading merchant captain. When Heracles seduces Auge [2] , her father Aleus [1] of Tegea, asks N. to either drown Auge or sell her. He sells her to Teuthras. Later the Cretan king Catreus asks him to sell his daughters Aërope and Clymene [5]. He s…

Nausithous

(143 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ναυσίθοος; Nausíthoos). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and Periboea Son of Poseidon and Periboea, grandson of Eurymedon [1], king of the Phaeaces. He and his people flee from the  Cyclopes to the island of Drepane or Scheria. There he becomes the father of Alcinous [1] and Rhexenor. When Heracles [1] comes to him after having killed his own children, he purifies him (Hom. Od. 6,1-11; 7,56-63; Apoll. Rhod. 4,539-550). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Odysseus and Calypso Son of Odysseus and  Calypso (Hes. theog. 1017f.) or Circe (Hyg. Fab. 125). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Pandemos

(92 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πάνδημος/ Pándēmos). Epiclesis of Aphrodite (B. 2). The cult of Aphrodite P. is said to have been founded by Theseus in Athens (Paus. 1,14,7; 1,23,3). Plato interprets Aphrodite P. as 'common' love as opposed to the 'higher' love of Aphrodite Urania ('the heavenly one') (Pl. Symp. 180d). However, this is historically incorrect, as Paus. 1,22,3 shows. He interprets P. correctly as the Aphrodite 'common to the entire united (Attic) people'. Thus, the Aphrodite called P. symbolised the political unity of Attica (cf. [1]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 Simon, GG, …

Merope

(163 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μερόπη/Merópē). [German version] [1] One of the seven Pleiades One of the seven Pleiades, daughter of Atlas, wife of Sisyphus, mother of Glaucus [2] (Apollod. 1,85; 3,110; Hyg. fab. 192; Ov. Fast. 4,175). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Oenopion and Helice Daughter of Oenopion and Helice, raped by Orion (Apollod. 1,25; Hyg. Astr. 2,34). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Cypselus Daughter of Cypselus [1], wife of Cresphontes [1], mother of Cresphontes [2]. In her son's attempt to avenge incognito his father's murder by h…

Nicodamas

(40 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νικοδάμας/ Nikodámas). A pygmy, husband of Oenoe [1] who refused to worship Artemis and Hera and as a punishment was turned into a crane (Antoninus Liberalis 16). She was also called Gerana (Ath. 9,393e). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Podarces

(126 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Ποδάρκης; Podárkēs). [German version] [1] Leader of the Thessalians at Troy Son of Iphicles, after the death of his brother Protesilaus leader of the Thessalians from Phylace and other cities in the Trojan War (Hom. Il. 2,704; 13,693). He kills the Amazon Clonie and is killed by Penthesilea (Quint. Smyrn. 1,233-248; 818-829 after the Little Iliad). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of the Trojan king Laomedon Son of the Trojan king Laomedon [1], original name of Priamus. In the first Trojan War he is the only one of Laomedon's sons spared by Heracles [1], and is 'bought' ( apò toû …

Plexippus

(57 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πλήξιππος/ Plḗxippos). Son of Thestius, brother of Althaea; participant in the Calydonian Hunt; P. is killed by his nephew  Meleager [1], because he intended to steal from  Atalante the pelt of the Calydonian boar, which Meleager had given her (Apollod. 1,62; Ov. Met. 8,305; 434; 440; Hyg. Fab. 173; 174; 244). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Periphas

(113 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Περίφας; Períphas). [German version] [1] Hero at Troy, killed by Ares Mythical hero at Troy, from Aetolia, killed by Ares (Hom. Il. 5,842. 847). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Hero at Troy, comrade of Neoptolemus Mythical hero at Troy, comrade of Neoptolemus [1] (Verg. Aen. 2,476). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan Trojan, herald of Anchises, in whose shape Apollo roused Aeneas [1] to battle (Hom. Il. 17,323). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Archaic Attic king before even Cecrops Mythical archaic king of Attica, before even Cecrops; venerate…

Mynes

(84 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μύνης; Mýnēs). [German version] [1] Ruler of a city in the Troad Mythological ruler of a city in the Troad, during the destruction of which the husband of Briseis was killed by  Achilles (Hom. Il. 19,296). He is probably identical with the son of Euenus, the brother of Epistrophus (Hom. Il. 2,692). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Progenitor of the Attic dynasty Mythological progenitor of the Attic dynasty, father of Pedias, the wife of king Cranaus (Apollod. 3,186). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Xenodamus

(107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ξενόδαμος; Xenódamos). 7th century BC Greek choral lyric poet from Cythera. In the generation after Terpander, together with Thaletas and Xenocritus [1] of Locri he took part in various musical reforms in Sparta (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like the other two he was a composer of paeans (Plut. ibid.), which in Antiquity were also classified as Hyporchḗmata (Plut. loc.cit.; [1. 82],  cf. [2. 15-17; 3. 99-100; 4. 335]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992 2 Id., Bakchylides und das System der chorlyrischen Gattungen im 5. Jh. v. Chr., in: A.…

Onocentaur

(128 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (masc.) or onocentaura (fem.) (Ὀνοκένταυρος/ Onokéntauros, Ὀνοκένταυρα/ Onokéntaura). Mythological monster. The word is first found in the LXX, in which the name O. is used for the Hebrew word for 'jackal' (Is 13:22; 34:14). The Biblical explanation appears to consider the O. to be a demon (Theodoretus of Cyrus, Commentary on Is 13:22). In Greek and Latin non-Christian literature it is first found in Ael. NH 17,9: there its face is human, as are its body from the chest to the loins and i…

Priolas

(48 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πριόλας; Priólas). Local hero of Priola near Heraclea [7], brother of Bormus and Mariandynus (Poll. 4,55). Killed in battle; Heracles [1] takes part in his funeral games; every year ritual threnodies are held in his honour (Apoll. Rhod. 2,780-785 with schol.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Periclymenus

(108 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Περικλύμενος/ Periklýmenos, Latin Periclymenus). [German version] [1] Epithet of Pluto Epithet of Pluto (Hesych. s.v. Π.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Poseidon Son of Poseidon. In the war of the Seven against Thebes he kills Parthenopaeus (Eur. Phoen. 1156ff.; Apollod. 3,75). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Son of Neleus and Chloris Son of Neleus [1] and Chloris [4] (Hom. Od. 11,281ff.). Took part in the campaign of the Argonautai (Apoll. Rhod. 1,56ff.). Despite his ability to change form he was killed by  Heracles [1] …
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