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Conquest

(3,263 words)

Author(s): König, Hans-Joachim | Fassbender, Bardo
1. Forcible territorial acquisition Conquest (French  conquête, German  Eroberung), in international law and general usage alike, denotes the forcible acquisition of territory from another state by warlike means [7]. The forcible acquisition of territory by organized communities is one of the most constant and frequent phenomena of history, not only in Europe, but also on other continents. Voluntary transfers of territory were the exception rather than the rule. Conquests of enemy territory accompanied and followed wars throughout early modern history [5. 49–72] (Example…
Date: 2019-10-14

America, Second discovery of

(2,779 words)

Author(s): König, Hans-Joachim | Rinke, Stefan
1. Introduction In the age of American liberation movements (e.g. the American Revolution) at the transition from the 18th to the 19th century, vast territories in both Northern and Southern America underwent a first systematic exploration, celebrated as America’s “new” or “second discovery” already by contemporaries. The exploits of America’s “second” discovery, comparable in significance to the explorations of James Cook (Voyages of discovery), are closely connected with Alexander von…
Date: 2019-10-14

Newe Zeitung

(2,101 words)

Author(s): Münch, Roger | König, Hans-Joachim
1. Definition and state of researchIn discussing the  Newe Zeitungen – print media that emerged around 1480 in German-speaking Europe – we must distinguish between the contemporary generic term and the use of the phrase as a title. The former refers to non-periodic news sheets of the 16th and 17th centuries, which appeared with news of specific events. The noun Zeitung (“Newspaper”) was already in use in the sense of news or tidings;  Newe Zeitung thus means “new news” or “new tidings.” In generic usage, it is not absolutely necessary for the title to contain th…
Date: 2020-04-06

Occident (Abendland)

(2,518 words)

Author(s): König, Hans-Joachim | Repgen, Konrad
1. ConceptLike “Orient” (cf. Orientalism), the term “Occident” shifted in meaning in the course of early modern global cultural contact and encounters between the so-called Christian West and Islam, and of European expansionism and colonialism, from a geographical term without political freight to a value category of cultural politics. Derived from the Latin  occidens [ sol] (“setting [sun]”), it originally denoted the evening and those regions lying towards evening, that is in the west or a westerly direction, in accordance with the Roman co…
Date: 2020-04-06

Atlantic world

(11,958 words)

Author(s): Bley, Helmut | König, Hans-Joachim
1. Atlantic expansion and its impact on the European states 1.1. Discovery of America, prior history and consequencesThe voyage of discovery of Christopher Columbus, who on 12 October 1492, while searching for a westerly route across the “Ocean Sea” to India, became the first European to sight islands on the western edge of the Atlantic Ocean, heralded a new phase of history, both for Europe and for the continent hitherto unknown to Europeans: a phase of global interaction. From now on, the history of the two si…
Date: 2019-10-14

Global interaction

(4,508 words)

Author(s): Bley, Helmut | König, Hans-Joachim
1. Introduction and concept The history of the early modern period is the history of the first modern global society. It is still commonplace to interpret it as a period of untrammeled European expansionism. This, however, is uncritically to project the ascendancy of the highly industrialized states of Europe and the United States back into earlier periods, ignoring the fact that this ascendancy only came about in the late 19th century (Industrialization). Through haste and generalization, the slave…
Date: 2019-10-14

American indigenous peoples, policy towards

(3,703 words)

Author(s): König, Hans-Joachim | Keil, Hartmut
1. Introduction During their expansion drive (Expansionism) into the New World the Europeans did not discover an uninhabited continent. They came across unknown civilizations which seemed to be different not only from those of any peoples then known, but were also socially, culturally and linguistically divergent among themselves and were located in regions that were characterized by varying climates as well as geographical features (American peoples, indigenous).To the Europeans all of them appeared to be equally alien, weird, even barbaric (Barbarian). The t…
Date: 2019-10-14

Free-trade imperialism

(2,632 words)

Author(s): Bley, Helmut | König, Hans-Joachim
1. Introduction The term “free-trade imperialism” was coined to reflect the fact that European expansionism in the first half of the 19th century was motivated by the desire not so much to acquire colonies as to establish informal control on the basis of superior production of goods in the Age of Industrialization, the resultant financial muscle, and modern naval and military technology. This policy of informal control was pursued outside Europe by Great Britain in particular, but also by other European Great Powers.The most important instruments were trade agreements (whic…
Date: 2019-10-14

New World

(8,373 words)

Author(s): König, Hans-Joachim | Rinke, Stefan
1. IntroductionFrom the mid-16th century, the term “New World” denoted the Americas. This was not, however, the case from the outset, as the Portuguese and Spanish discovered new lands in the 15th century as they expanded into the Atlantic world, or when Columbus in 1492 added something completely new to European world perception by discovering America (America, discovery of).Even in Greco-Roman antiquity, authors like Strabo and Pomponius Mela used the expression “other/new world” (Greek  álle oikouméne; Latin  mundus/ orbis novus) for all newly-discovered regions of t…
Date: 2020-04-06

Marian devotion

(2,973 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | König, Hans-Joachim
1. BasicsFrom the 2nd century on, numerous legends grew up around Mary, the mother of Jesus, whose life is only briefly sketched in the NT. Especially after the divine sonship of Jesus Christ was defined dogmatically in the 4th and 5th centuries, she was venerated privately and liturgically. Particularly in the Middle Ages, a growing number of Marian feasts were established and distributed throughout the church year, while churches and pilgrimage sites (Pilgrimage, local) were dedicated to the Mother of God (see 2.2. below).In the Middle Ages, she was also seen as an exempl…
Date: 2019-10-14

Kolonialreich

(14,255 words)

Author(s): König, Hans-Joachim | Reese, Armin | Lennert, Gernot
1. Allgemeines 1.1. ForschungstendenzenDie Beschäftigung mit den europ. K. braucht den Vorwurf des Eurozentrismus nicht mehr zu fürchten. Heute gehen selbst die Nationalgeschichten ehemaliger Kolonialmächte kritisch mit dem Ausgriff in außereurop. Regionen und mit der Verherrlichung ihrer Zivilisierungs-Leistung um. Das Jahr 1492 wird in seiner Bedeutung als Epochendatum für den kulturellen Fortschritt Amerikas in Frage gestellt und vielmehr als Beginn kolonialistischer Ausbeutung apostrophiert [2]. Das war freilich nicht immer so. So bezeichnete 1555 der sp…
Date: 2020-11-18

Nationalmythen

(5,078 words)

Author(s): Hirschi, Caspar | König, Hans-Joachim | Rinke, Stefan
1. Begriff und GegenstandAls N. können alle Erzählungen über ein vergangenes Geschehen von faktischem oder fiktivem Gehalt verstanden werden, die zur Konstruktion und Kohäsion einer Nation beitragen. Jeder Herrschaftsverband produziert »fundierende Geschichten« [13. 52], die ihm einen heroischen Ursprung und eine von harten, aber bestandenen Prüfungen geprägte Vergangenheit bescheinigen sowie eine große Zukunft prophezeien. Dadurch erhalten Machtstrukturen den Schein einer höheren Notwendigkeit, und Herrscher wie Beherrschte we…
Date: 2019-11-19

Tribut

(4,094 words)

Author(s): Damler, Daniel | Mittag, Achim | König, Hans-Joachim
1. Europa 1.1. Begriff und VölkerrechtslehreDer Begriff T. (von lat. tributum; »Beitrag«, »Abgabe«) war in der Frühen Nz. – entsprechend der heterogenen Verwendung in den antiken lat. Quellen – zur Umschreibung verschiedener Sachverhalte gebräuchlich. Zedlers Universal-Lexicon (1745) nennt zunächst den allgemeinen Wortsinn von »Anlage, Schatzung, Land-Steuer«, dann auch den Hinweis auf die Herkunft des Begriffs aus dem röm. Staatsrecht: T. als eine v. a. zur Bewältigung von Notsituationen vom röm. Bürger erhobene Abgabe [1]. Geläufig war der Terminus zudem in der Be…
Date: 2019-11-19

Sklavengesellschaft

(6,098 words)

Author(s): Bley, Helmut | Keil, Hartmut | König, Hans-Joachim
1. AllgemeinBei Gesellschaften, in denen Sklaverei (= Skl.) und Sklavenhandel (= Sh.) eine Rolle spielten, wird in der Regel zwischen Gesellschaften mit Sklaven und S. unterschieden. Letztere kamen in der Frühen Nz. nur in wenigen Fällen vor. Das Kennzeichen von S. ist, dass ihre gesellschaftliche Struktur und Ökonomie maßgeblich durch die Skl. geprägt sind und durch Sh., Reproduktion der Sklaven und verschiedene Unterwerfungsmethoden gesichert werden müssen. Am deutlichsten lässt sich die systemische Funktion von S. an den Verwerfungen erkennen, die sich aus …
Date: 2019-11-19

National myth

(5,678 words)

Author(s): Hirschi, Caspar | König, Hans-Joachim | Rinke, Stefan
1. Concept and introductionAny narrative giving an account of factual or fictional events as a contribution to the construction and cohesion of a nation may be called a national myth. Every ruling organization produces “consolidated histories” (“fundierende Geschichten”) [13. 52] attesting to its heroic origins and a past marked by tough challenges successfully passed, and prophesying a great future. In this way, power structures acquire the appearance of a higher necessity, and rulers and ruled become integrated into a unique and…
Date: 2020-04-06

Colonial empire

(15,954 words)

Author(s): König, Hans-Joachim | Reese, Armin | Lennert, Gernot
1. Introduction 1.1. Trends in researchThere need no longer be any suspicion of Eurocentrism in study of the European colonial empires. Even the national histories of former colonial powers today treat the expansion beyond Europe, and the glorification of the project of civilization process, with critical distance. Seeing the year 1492 as an epoch-making step in the cultural progress of America is questioned, and the alternative proposal that it marked the beginning of colonialist exploitation is instead made [2].This was not always the case. In 1555, for instance, the…
Date: 2019-10-14

Orientalismus

(4,944 words)

Author(s): König, Hans-Joachim | Stuckrad, Kocku von | Kepetzis, Ekaterini | Greilich, Susanne
1. Theorie 1.1. EinleitungDer Begriff O. ist seit den frühen 1980er Jahren, seit der Studie des palästinensisch-amerikan. Literaturwissenschaftlers Edward Said von 1978 [27] und ihrer raschen Rezeption, zu einem regelrechten Modebegriff und zum Zentrum eines häufig angewandten Forschungsansatzes geworden. Seitdem ist er nicht mehr eindeutig, falls er es denn im europ. Sprachgebrauch seit dem ersten Auftreten in Wörterbüchern (franz. orientalisme, engl. orientalism [3]; [6. 3834]) um die Wende vom 18. zum 19. Jh. jemals war. Seine Bedeutung ist heute vielschi…
Date: 2019-11-19

Gewalt

(5,394 words)

Author(s): Schwerhoff, Gerd | Gestrich, Andreas | Bley, Helmut | König, Hans-Joachim
1. BegriffG. lässt sich als die Ausübung von physischem Zwang zur Überwindung eines Widerstandes definieren; oder sie wird – aus der Perspektive des G.-Opfers – als Verletzung oder Beeinträchtigung der körperlichen Integrität eines Menschen gefasst. Die moderne sozial- und kulturwiss. Forschungsdiskussion behandelt somit konkrete G.-Handlungen im Sinne von lat. vis (engl. force). Dagegen werden Ausweitungen des G.-Begriffs, z. B. im Sinne einer »psychischen« oder »strukturellen G.«, zunehmend kritisch gesehen, weil es derartigen Kategorien an an…
Date: 2020-11-18

Kolonialismus

(7,472 words)

Author(s): Bley, Helmut | König, Hans-Joachim | Ahuja, Ravi | Nolte, Hans-Heinrich
1. Einleitung 1.1. Neuzeitlicher und moderner KolonialismusEine Analyse des K. der Nz. im Kontext der europ. Expansionen muss versuchen, die Unterschiede zum K. des späten 19. und frühen 20. Jh.s herauszuarbeiten. K. wird in der Regel zunächst mit den Erscheinungsformen dieser späteren Phase verbunden. Der K. insbes. des späten 19. und frühen 20. Jh.s unterschied sich vom frühnzl. K. zunächst durch die verstärkten Interventionsmöglichkeiten der Metropolen. Die militärische Überlegenheit der Kolonialmächte wuchs v. a. durch den Einsatz de…
Date: 2019-11-19

Orientalism

(5,266 words)

Author(s): König, Hans-Joachim | Stuckrad, Kocku von | Kepetzis, Ekaterini | Greilich, Susanne
1. Theory 1.1. IntroductionStarting with the 1978 study by the Palestinian-American literary scientist Edward Said [27] and its rapid reception in the early 1980s, the term “Orientalism” has become nothing short of a vogue expression, at the core of a frequent approach to research. Since this time, the term has remained as ambiguous as it has always been in the history of its European usage, from its first appearances in dictionaries (French  orientalism [3]; [6]) at the turn of the 19th century. It carries many connotations today, from the perception of the Orie…
Date: 2020-10-06
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