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(761 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
(Μελίτη; Melítē). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, playmate of Persephone's (Hom. H. 2, 419). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [2] Nereid Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,42; Hes. Theog. 247; Verg. Aen. 5,825). She is present on Attic vases at the struggle between Peleus and Thetis [1]. Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [3] Naiad Naiad ( Nymphs), daughter of the river-god Aegaeus. When Hercules comes to the land of the Phaeacians to atone for the murder of his children, he fathers a son, Hyllus [2], by M. (Apoll. Rhod. 4,537ff.). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [4] Lover of Hercules Dau…


(654 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Ἴκαρος; Íkaros). [German version] [1] Son of Daedalus Son of  Daedalus [1]. Held captive on Crete by  Minos, Daedalus builds a pair of wings each for himself and I., which they use to escape Minos. However, I., despite the warnings of his father, comes too close to the sun; this melts the wax in his wings, he crashes near the island of  Icarus [2]/Icaria and drowns. Daedalus (or Hercules, Apollod. 2,132) buries him; the island and the sea around it are named after I. The well-known version of the story is formulated in Ov. Met. 8,183-235 (cf. Apollod. Epitome 1,12f.); a Pompei…


(80 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Attica (Βούδορον; Boúdoron). Settlement on  Salamis, important Athenian base during the Peloponnesian War. In 429 BC,  Cnemus laid siege to the fortress to no avail. From his base in B.,  Nicias captured the Megarian fortress of Minoa and Nisaea in 427 BC. Remains of walls were found south-west of the monastery of Phaneromeni (founded in 1661). Kalcyk, Hansjör…


(66 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κοῖλα; Koîla). The south-east coast of  Euboea (Hdt. 8,13f.; Dion. Chrys. 7,2; 7; Eur. Tro. 84; 90; Ptol. 3,15,25) that was feared because of its storms. In Str. 10,1,2; Val. Max. 1,8,10; Liv. 31,47,1; Oros. 6,15,11, C. is the southern part of the straits of Euboea up to Euripos. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 7ff.


(349 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀμοργός; Amorgós). Easternmost island of the  Cyclades (121 km2), mountainous (Krikelon 821 m). The three ancient main towns of the island were all located on its north-western coast:  Aegiale, Minoa (near the modern main port of Katapola, and modern Chora, officially A.), and Arcesine. The island was densely populated in the prehistoric period, and supposedly served as a trade post from the 3rd millennium onwards. Rich grave finds from the early Cycladic period show close links w…


(365 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Κήρινθος; Kḗrinthos). [German version] [1] Town on the eastern coast of Euboea Town on the eastern coast of  Euboea (Hom. Il. 2,538; Str. 10,1,3; 5), localized near the modern Mandudion. The origins of C. date back into the Neolithic. In historical times, C. probably belonged to  Histiaea. Inscriptions: IG XII 9, 1184f. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography E. Freund, s.v. K., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 323. [German version] [2] Jewish-Christian Gnostic Jewish-Christian  Gnostic, contemporary with the Apostles (1st/ early 2nd cents. AD). According to the main witness  Irenaeus [2] (Iren. Adversus haereses 1,26,1), he denied, while teaching in Asia Minor, the creation of the world by the supreme God. With that he combined a ‘Christology of division and incorporation’ [2. 37]. He dismissed the virgin birth and saw Jesus solely as the natural son of Joseph and Mary, upon whom at his baptism Christ descended, only to leave him again before the Pass…


(63 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἄβαντες; Ábantes). A. is the name given even by Homer (Il. 2,536 ff.; 4,464) to the inhabitants of the island of  Euboea, also known as Abantis (Str. 10,1,3; Paus. 5,22,3). In historical times, the name A. only survives in the phyle Abantis of the town of  Chalcis (CIL XII 9,946). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography E. Meyer, s. v. A., in: LdA 1,61.


(128 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Ἀμάρυνθος; Amárynthos). The town A. on the island  Euboea belonged as deme to  Eretria. A. lay c. 10 km east of modern Eretria on the Palaiochoria or Palaiokastro hill (formerly Kato Vatheia) on the coast. The place was already important in the neolithic period and remained continuously inhabited up into the Byzantine period. The name has …


(290 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Γεραιστός; Geraistós). [German version] [1] Southernmost tip of Euboea In antiquity, G. was the name for the southernmost tip of Euboea: Hdt. 8,7,1; 9,105; Str. 10,1,2; Plin. HN 4,63; GGM I, 500; Scyl. 58. Called Cape Tzeraso in the Middle Ages, it became an anchorage for Genoan and Venetian ships (remnants of fortifications). Today Cape Mandelo. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 111ff. Lauffer, Griechenland, 231. [German version] [2] Harbour on the southern coast of Euboea The only safe harbour on the dreaded sou…


(355 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Μινώα/ Minṓa). [German version] [1] Region on the west coast of the Argolic Gulf According to Ptol. 3,14,32 a harbour, according to Str. 8,6,1 a phroûrion (‘fortification’), according to Paus. 3,23,11 foothills on the west coast of the Argolic Gulf, the modern island of Monemvasia with medieval and modern fortifications. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M.D. and R. Higgins, A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean, 1996, 55f.  A.J.B. Wace, F.W. Hasluck, South-Eastern Laconia, in: ABSA 14, 1907-1908, 176ff.  H. Waterhouse, R.Hope Simpson, Pre-Historic Laconia 2, in: ABSA 56, 1961, 137. [German version] [2] City in the western part of the north coast of Crete City in the western part of the north coast of Crete (Plin. HN 4,59), one of the harbours of Aptara, from the 3rd cent. BC dependent on Cydonia. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography …


(427 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Persian Wars (Ἱστίαια; Histíaia). City on the north coast of Euboea, still not identified, probably to be found near Xirochori, a settlement of Thessalian Hellopii and Perrhaebi. The territory of H. originally covered the entire north of Euboea (Dem. Or. 23,213) and was known for its wine (Hom. Il. 2,537). The temple of Artemis Proseoa in Artemisium was its main sanctuary. After the naval battle at Cape Artemisium, the Persians occupied and plundered H. (Hdt. 8,23f.; 66,1; Diod. Sic. 11,13,5). The city joined the  Delian League in 477 BC with a relatively small tribute (1,000 drachmas, ATL 1,274f.; 3,22; 197; 239; 267f.; 288). H. played a leading role on the Euboean uprising against Athens in 446 BC and after its defeat was more harshly punished than, for example, Chalcis or Eretria. The inhabitants were exiled for seizing an Athenian ship and murdering its crew. Some 2,000 Attic cleruchs were settled in Oreus, a deme of H.'s on the coast (near today's Molos). After the Peloponnesian War and the withdrawal of the cleruchs, the exiled inhabitants returned to H. from Thessaly. H. and Oreus merged, as documented by a communal wall; Oreus became established as the city's name. The period of independence of both places is recalled by the acropoleis of the lower and upper city (cf. Liv. 28,6,2; 31,46,9). In the Corinthian War H., like other cities of Euboea, sided with the enemies of the Spartans, who occupied H. until the city was liberated by the Athenians in 377 (Diod. Sic. 15,30,1ff.; Xen. Hell. 5,4,56f.). H. was a member of the 2nd  Athenian League from 371 to 357/6, except for interruptions caused by the alliance with Thebes and in 343-341 by the tyranny of Philistides who was supported by Philip II. In the Hellenistic period, H. was mostly under Macedonian rule. In 208 BC (Liv. 28,5,18ff.) and 199 BC (Liv. 31,46,6ff.) H. was conquered by the Romans and  Attalus [4] I of Pergamon, but declared free after 197 (Pol. 18,47,10; Liv. 33,34,10; 34,51,1). Widespread coin finds and many proxenies point to its great commercial and political importance in the Hellenistic period. By contrast, nothing is known from the Roman period: Pliny (HN 4,64) still mentions H., but Mela and later authors do not ref…


(736 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Χαλκίς; Chalkís). [German version] [1] Settlement in Euboea on the Euripus This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Dark Ages | Ionic | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources | Boeotia, Boeotians …


(153 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Αἰγιλία, Αἰγιαλία; Aigilía, Aigialía). Island in the southern  Aegean Sea; Plin. HN 4,57; Plut. Cleom. 31), with an area of 22 km2. In Byzantine times called Antikythera, under Venetian rule Cerigotto. The seemingly sole ancient settlement was located near Palaiokastro in the north-east of the island. To the north of A., an ancient shipwreck was discovered in AD 1900, where the ‘Youth of A.’ and other bronze and marble statues have been found (nowadays at the National Museum in Athens). Amongst the f…


(35 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[German version] (Κύνθος; Kýnthos, Latin Cynthus). Name of a mountain 113 m high on  Delos with a sanctuary to Zeus (Cynthius) and Athena (Cynthia). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography G. Gruben, Die Tempel der Griechen, 41986, 146f.


(1,970 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Et al.
[English version] I. Personen (Δίων) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [English version] [I 1] Freund Platons, 4. Jh. v. Chr. Sohn des Hipparinos, Schwager und Schwiegersohn Dionysios' I. von Syrakus, * 409 v.Chr., seit Platons erstem Aufenthalt 388 in Syrakus dessen enger Freund und Verfechter seiner Philosophie. Unter Dionysios I. kam er als dessen Vertrauter und Ratgeber zu Ansehen und Reichtum und blieb auch unter Dionysios II. einflußreich. Er vermittelte 366 den Frieden mit Karthago und rief Platon nach Syrakus, um das Willkürregiment Dionysios' II. nach dem platonischen Staatsideal umzuformen. Dies mißlang völlig, da sich Dionysios als Person ungeeignet erwies und sich dessen Freunde und Berater, bes. Philistos, dagegen stellten. Des Hochverrats bezichtigt, mußte D. ins Exil nach Griechenland gehen; Anlaß bot ein Schreiben des D. an karthagische Freunde, nicht ohne seine Vermittlung Frieden zu schließen (Plat. epist. 7,329; Plut. Dion 14f.; mor. 53E). In seinem etwa neunjährigen Exil pflegte er als fürstlicher Herr in Athen enge Verbindung zur Akademie, erhielt in Sparta das Bürgerrecht und besuchte u.a. Korinth. Als er von Platon 360 in Olympia erfuhr, Dionysios II. wolle trotz Platons Fürsprache die Verbannung nicht aufheben, landete er 357 mit wenigen Schiffen und 600 Söldnern bei Minoa im karthagischen Teil Siziliens. Auf dem Weg nach Syrakus erhielt er großen Zulauf aus Akragas, Gela, Kamarina und sikelischen Gemeinden, während sich in Syrakus das Volk gegen Dionysios erhob. Dem triumphalen Einzug folgten ergebnislose Verhandlungen und wechselvolle Kämpfe mit dem auf Ortygia eingeschlossenen Tyrannen. D. und sein Bruder Megakles wurden zu bevollmächtigten Strategen gewählt, doch erregte sein selbstherrliches Auftreten das Mißtrauen der Demokraten, die sein früherer Kampfgenosse Herakleides anführte. Des Strebens nach der Tyrannis beschuldigt und abgesetzt, zog sich D. nach Leontinoi zurück, wurde jedoch bald zum Kampf gegen Nypsios, den General Dionysios' II., zurückgerufen. Nun ging D. rigide an die Verwirklichung des Idealstaats Platons. Er löste die Flotte als Brutstätte der Demokratie auf, zwang 355 Dionysios, nach Lokroi zu gehen, und nahm eine autoritäre und quasityrannische Stellung ein. D. berief eine verfassungsgebende Versammlung aus Syrakusiern und Korinthiern ein und ließ seinen Gegner Herakleides hinrichten. An die Spitze des Staates sollten mehrere Könige, unter ihnen D., und 35 Gesetzeswächter treten, Rat und Volksversammlung dagegen ihre Befugnisse weitgehend verlieren. Die allg. Ablehnung dieser Neuordnung führte 354 auf Befehl des der Akademie nahestehenden Kallippos zur Erm…


(45 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[English version] (Καύκασα). Hafenort an der Nordküste von Chios (Hdt. 5,33,1); seine Einwohner werden auf Inschr. Kaukaseís gen. (SGDI 5654; SEG 19, 575; Apollon Kaukaseus und Artemis Kaukasis in Erythrai, Syll.3 3, 1014a,19f.). Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 6, 2292.


(296 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[English version] (Κύθνος, lat. Cythnus, h. Thermia). Insel der westl. Kykladen (86 km2), mit 21 km L, 11 km Br, eine einförmige wellige Hochfläche (200 bis 350 m H), vorwiegend Schiefer. Ihre stark zergliederte Küste bietet kei…


(108 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
[English version] (Κήναιον, lat. Cenaeum). Die NW-Ausläufer von Euboia, h. Kap Lihada, eine flache Schwemmlandspitze an jungtertiärer Küstenterrasse, mit einem Heiligtum des Zeus Kenaios (Skyl. 58). Das wohl in hell. Zeit befestigte Heiligtum besaß keinen Tempel. Auf K. lagen die Städte Athenai Diades und Dion. 427/6 v.Chr. versanken Teile der Halbinsel infolge eines Erdbebens im Meer (Demetrios von Kallatis, FGrH 85 F 6). Quellen:…
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