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Geraistos

(273 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Γεραιστός). [English version] [1] äußerste Südspitze von Euboia G. hieß in der Ant. die äußerste Südspitze von Euboia: Hdt. 8,7,1; 9,105; Strab. 10,1,2; Plin. nat. 4,63; GGM I, 500; Skyl. 58, im MA Kap Tzeraso, ein Ankerplatz für genues. und venezian. Schiffe (Reste einer Befestigungsanlage). H. Kap Mandelo. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography F. Geyer, Top. und Gesch. der Insel Euboia 1, 1903, 111ff. Lauffer, Griechenland, 231. [English version] [2] Hafen an der Südküste von Euboia Einziger sicherer Hafen an der gefürchteten Südküste von Euboia ca. 3 km nörd…

Marpessa

(180 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Μάρπησσα; Márpēssa, ‘the robbed one’). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Aetolian river god Evenus Daughter of the Aetolian river god Evenus [3]. She is kidnapped by Idas, who escapes the persecuting Evenus with the help of his father Poseidon. M.'s father plunges into the river, which is named after him. M. is then taken from Idas by Apollo, and a fight ensues between him and the god, during the course of which Idas disarms the god of his bow (Hom. Il. 9,555ff.). Zeus settles the dispute by leaving the ch…

Melos

(1,080 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
[German version] [1] Cyclades island (Μῆλος/ Mêlos, Doric Μᾶλος/ Mâlos; Latin Melos, modern Milos). Name of the westernmost of the Cyclades islands, the fifth largest at 161 km2. Included in the archipelago of M. are Kimolos off the northeastern point, Polaegus (modern Polivo) to the east, and Erimomilos to the west of M., plus a number of very small islands and rocks. M. is the caldera of a Pliocene volcano; its relics are still present today in the sulphurous thermal springs in the northeast and southeast. The sea has access to the caldera of the crater …

Chios

(447 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Ionic | Colonization | Marble | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Χίος; Chíos). [German version] A. Introduction Large (856 km2) island, c. 8 km from the mainland. The ancient settlements were on the east coast, where the main city of the same name is today (few traces, an earthquake in 1881 having destroyed nearly all buildings on the island). Highest point is the Pelinaion (1297 m). The east and south-east …

Lelantion pedion

(90 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λέλαντον, Ληλάντιον or Ληλάντου πεδίον; Lélanton, Lēlántion or Lēlántou pedíon). Fertile plain between Chalcis and Eretria, the possession of which was the object of the ‘Lelantine War’ at the beginning of the 7th cent. BC between these two cities and their allies. Str. 1,3,16; 10,1,9; 3,6; 10,3,6; H. Hom. 2,220; Callim. H. 4,289; Plut. Mor. 153f; Theophr. Hist. pl. 8,8,5; 8,10,4; Ael. VH 6,1; SEG XIII, 178; 312. In the Middle Ages the Lelantion pedion was still called Lilanto. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)

Cius, [1]

(178 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Dörner, Friedrich Karl (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Colonization | Pergamum (Κίος; Kíos). Port town in the eastern part of the Gulf of  Propontis (which is named after it) on the river of the same name, modern Gemlik. C. was the starting-point of the roads to  Nicaea and  Prusa. According to Apoll. Rhod. 4,1470, a foundation of the Argonauts ( Argonautae, map), coins show Hercules as the founder of the city (HN 512-514); according to Plin. HN 5,144 founded by Milesians. C. participated in …

Artemisium

(188 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ἀρτεμίσιον; Artemísion). [German version] [1] Coastal strip of Euboia facing Magnesia A. was probably the ancient name for the entire coastal strip of  Euboea facing the  Magnesia peninsula (Plin. HN 4,64). Close to the modern village of Artemision, above the bay of Pevki, are the remains of a small temple of Artemis ‘facing towards the east’ (Proseoa), which as an amphictyonic sanctuary also formed the cultural centre of the region around  Histiaea. The famous bronze statue of Poseidon (nowadays in the N…

Carystus

(487 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κάρυστος; Kárystos, Lat. Carystus). [German version] [1] Town in Euboia This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) Town on the coastal plain on the gulf of the same name in the south-east of  Euboea, also called Karystos today; it lies about 3 km inland between the acropolis and the harbour, and was known as a foundation of the Dryopes, who in the course of the  Doric migration had to leave their homela…

Icarus

(654 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Ἴκαρος; Íkaros). [German version] [1] Son of Daedalus Son of  Daedalus [1]. Held captive on Crete by  Minos, Daedalus builds a pair of wings each for himself and I., which they use to escape Minos. However, I., despite the warnings of his father, comes too close to the sun; this melts the wax in his wings, he crashes near the island of  Icarus [2]/Icaria and drowns. Daedalus (or Hercules, Apollod. 2,132) buries him; the island and the sea around it are named after I. The well-known version of the story is formulated in Ov. Met. 8,183-235 (cf. Apollod. Epitome 1,12f.); a Pompei…

Lemnos

(813 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Λῆμνος; Lêmnos). [German version] A. Location Fertile L., which is, however, today almost treeless, is - at 477 km2 - one of the larger Aegean islands. Mainly consisting of slate with volcanic rock deposited in it, the low hill country reaches its highest elevation with the Skopia at 470 m. The rugged coast has bays that cut in deeply. The ancient capital cities were Myrina on the west coast (remains of a…

Cythera

(756 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κύθηρα; Kýthēra, Lat. Cythera, the modern Kithira). [German version] A. Geography of the island Off the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese, 30 km long and 18 km wide, C. covers an area of around 262 km2, and is surrounded by several small, uninhabited islands. The coast consists mostly of steep cliffs, indented with small bays from which narrow, steep valleys lead into…

Ceos

(652 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] [1] One of the Cyclades (Κέως; Kéōs). Northernmost of the western Cyclades (Xen. Hell. 5,4,61: Κέως; Hdt. 8,76; Bacchyl. 6,5; 16: Κέος; Kéos; Liv. 36,15: Cia), modern Kea. Twelve nautical miles off the southern tip of Attica, from which it is separated by the island of Makronisos. C. has an area of 131 km2, is mountainous (Prophitis Elias 567 m), and predominantly consists of crystalline slate. Silver deposits at the Hagios Symeon, where copper slags have also been found [9. 88f.]. On the Kephala promontory at the north-western tip of the island was a late …

Carpathos

(465 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κάρπαθος; Kárpathos, Lat. Carpathus). With an area of c. 332 km2the second largest island of the Dodecanes between Crete and Rhodes, with a coastal length of about 160 km (in the south the peak of Kali Limni with a height of 1220 m). The statement in Diod. Sic. (5,54,4,) that C. (the name is pre-Greek, Hom. Il. 2,676 refers to the island as Κράπαθος, Krápathos) once belonged to the kingdom of the  Minos is confirmed by archaeological finds. In the modern Karpathos on the south-eastern coast, Minoan-influenced pottery was found in a Mycenaea…

Chalcis

(736 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Χαλκίς; Chalkís). [German version] [1] Settlement in Euboea on the Euripus This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Dark Ages | Ionic | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources | Boeotia, Boeotians In Euboea on the Euripus; by its especially strategic position the most important town on the island. It remains uncertain whether the name C. derives from the or…

Cerinthus

(365 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Κήρινθος; Kḗrinthos). [German version] [1] Town on the eastern coast of Euboea Town on the eastern coast of  Euboea (Hom. Il. 2,538; Str. 10,1,3; 5), localized near the modern Mandudion. The origins of C. date back into the Neolithic. In historical times, C. probably belonged to  Histiaea. Inscriptions: IG XII 9, 1184f. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Bibliography E. Freund, s.v. K., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 323. [German version] [2] Jewish-Christian Gnostic Jewish-Christian  Gnostic, contemporary with the Apostles (1st/ early 2nd cents. AD). According to the…

Leros

(352 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λέρος; Léros). Island of the Dodecanese, off the coast of Asia Minor, between Patmos and Kalymnos, 53,5 km2 in extent. Its coast has several bays and coastal plains that extend deep into the interior of the island. According to Str. 10,5,19, L. and its neighbour Calymna were included in the Kalýdnai nḗsoi (Hom. Il. 2,677). The island, which has kept its ancient name until today, was already settled in the early Bronze Age (potsherds near Parthenium). There is a Mycenaean fortress in the north on the Kastro above the bay of Alinda…

Lade

(79 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λάδη; Ládē). Island originally off the coast of Miletus, length 3 km, height up to 98 m, today only a hilly ridge about 2 km from the coast because of the alluvial deposits of the Maeander. L. became known through the defeat of the Greeks in the Ionian Rebellion 496 BC: Hdt. 6,7ff.; Thuc. 8,17,3; Arr. Anab. 1,18,4ff.; Str. 14,1,7; Paus. 1,35,6. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. L., RE 12, 381.

Cerea

(104 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κέρεια; Kéreia). Island of the Cyclades (15 km2, height of more than 200 m) between Naxos and Amorgos, modern Keros (Stadiasmus maris magni 282; Geogr. Rav. 5,21: Cerus). In 425/4, it was a member of the Delian League (tribute of 630 drachmas, [1. vol. 1, 231, 308f., 501; vol. 3, 198]). Excavations uncovered an important early Cycladic settlement. Idol finds in the National Museum in Athens. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 ATL. L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 11, 253 Philippson/Kirsten vol. 4, 146f. E. Karpodini-Demetriade, Die gri…

Cyclades

(600 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κυκλάδες νῆσοι; Kykládes nêsoi, Latin Cyclades, ‘circle islands’). The modern term refers to the southern Aegean group comprising a total of more than 200 islands between the Greek mainland and the Cretan sea with the exception of the islands off the western coast of Asia Minor which essentially concurs with the original ancient concept (Hdt. 5,30). Thucydides (1,4; 2,9,4) considers that Melos and Thera belong to it, Scylax (48; 58) includes Thera, Anaphe and Astypalaea and only exclu…

Karystos

(411 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κάρυστος, lat. Carystus). [English version] [1] Stadt in Euboia Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaimenidai | Attisch-Delischer Seebund | Attischer Seebund | Getreidehandel, Getreideimport | Makedonia, Makedones | Marmor | Perserkriege Stadt in der Küstenebene am gleichnamigen Golf im Süden von Euboia, auch h. K., etwa 3 km landeinwärts zw. Burgberg und Hafen, als Gründung der Dryopes bekannt, die im Rahmen der Dorischen Wanderung ihre mittelgriech. Heimat verlassen mußten, nach Hom. Il. 2,539 Gründung der Ab…
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