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S̲h̲inḳīṭ

(883 words)

Author(s): Kane, Ousmane
, a town of the mediaeval Islamic Sahara. Various hypotheses have been put forward regarding the name S̲h̲inḳīṭ/S̲h̲ind̲j̲īṭ, of which the following two merit discussion. The first gives to it the meaning “source of horses”, with sen = “sources” and gīti = “horses”. According to the various proponents of this etymology, the word’s origin could be either from Azayr or Azer (a Soninké tongue, now extinct, formerly spoken in the Western Sahara) or else Zenāga Berber. The second hypothesis derives the name from s̲h̲in , said to be a deformation of sen or sin , which in …

Sulṭān

(6,089 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bosworth, C.E. | Schumann, O. | Kane, Ousmane
(a.), a word which is originally an abstract noun meaning “power, authority”, but which by the 4th/10th century often passes to the meaning “holder of power, authority”. It …

S̲h̲āʿir

(23,851 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Moreh, S. | Ben Abdesselem, A. | Reynolds, D.F. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Et al.
(a.), poet. ¶ 1. In the Arab world. A. Pre-Islamic and Umayyad periods. Among those endowed with knowledge and with power in ancient Arabia stands the figure of the s̲h̲āʿir , whose role is often confused with that of the ʿarrāf ( s̲h̲aʿara and ʿarafa having the same semantic value: cf. I. Goldziher, Abhandlungen , i, 3 ff.) and of the kāhin [ q.v.]. They were credited with the same source of inspiration, the d̲j̲inns (Goldziher, Die Ǧinnen der Dichter , in ZDMG, xlv [1891], 685 ff.). However, the s̲h̲āʿir was, originally, the repository of magical rather tha…