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Catholic Reformation

(5,118 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf | Walther, Gerrit | Kanz, Roland
1. Terminology The response of the Catholic Church (usually called the “Old Church” in the Reformation period) to the Reformation began gradually. Historians have coined various terms for it. Today there is still no term that covers both the efforts at reform within the Church during the 16th century and the attempt to win back the Church’s lost socio-political terrain. The competing terms include  Catholic Reformation,   Counter-Reformation, Catholic confessionalization, and recatholization.The reaction of the Old Church (and the states and territories that …
Date: 2019-10-14

Art theory

(8,821 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Introduction The history of early modern art theory from the 15th to the mid-19th century offers no semblance of a linear tradition in the discipline. Primary and secondary currents are encountered. It has long been recognized that the general history of early modern art, with its heterogeneity of genre and divergent development across Europe, is no longer reducible to a teleological history of style, but there are clearer international traditions of thought in the field of art theory. Art theo…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,545 words)

Author(s): Langer, Daniela | Rode-Breymann, Susanne | Kanz, Roland | Petri, Grischka
1. Concept and problemA work is considered plagiarism if it derives wholly or in part from the work of another author while deliberately concealing its source, permitting the definition of a “pretence of intellectual originality” [2. 1152]. Plagiarism is thus distinct from cryptomnesia (the unintended reproduction of something the author has forgotten having read) and the forms of parody and montage, in which disclosure of the source(s) is intended and crucial to reception. Whereas artistic forgery entails passing off one’s own w…
Date: 2020-10-06


(2,272 words)

Author(s): Lehmann-Brauns, Sicco | Kanz, Roland
1. Philosophy 1.1. Concept and overviewThe term eclecticism (from Gk. eklégein, “select”) goes back to Diogenes Laertius's (3rd century CE) description of the ancient philosopher Potamon of Alexandria, who was not a member of any of the well-known schools of philosophers but rather in each case selected from them all that which seemed right to him.Since the Renaissance the term eclecticism has been used correspondingly in characterization of a method which, in accordance with Paul's dictum, “test everything; hold fast to what is good” (1 Thess. 5,21…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,737 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Carolin | Kanz, Roland
1. Erotic literatureIn seeking a definition of literary erotica, the theme of love is of little use, because it is one of the most commonplace in the literature of all epochs. Nor are the usual terms “erotic,” “pornographic,” or “obscene” literature any more helpful, for they make distinctions not so much on the basis of the thematic or stylistic criteria they pretend to assert as on the basis of value judgment. It would be more useful to focus on the property intended to distinguish these texts f…
Date: 2020-04-09


(3,021 words)

Author(s): Zelle, Carsten | Kanz, Roland
1. Definition and historyMimesis (“[imitative] representation”) is a crucial, but polyvalent concept in literary theory, art theory, and other fields, the meaning of which has changed much through the course of history and remains controversial to this day. An extremely fluid spectrum of connotations was already in place in Greek antiquity. Mimesis (Greek mímēsis) is derived from  mímos (“mime”), and in the fifth-century BCE it meant portraying something in such a way as to resemble something else. Plato first gave it an aesthetic, although distinctly double-edged meaning [5. 1…
Date: 2020-04-06


(1,120 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Concept Illusionism relies on an intentional effect of deceiving the senses in a work of art. The illusion is usually based on tricking the sense of vision by means of precise naturalistic imitation and perspective techniques. The aim is to elicit momentary confusion between art and reality in the viewer. The illusion is not intended to be lasting, but to elicit an ensuing revelation that the seen effect is a work of art [5]; [6]. Artists also use illusionism to demonstrate that they are capable of surpassing nature by conjuring an appearance of reality.An ancient artist anecdote on …
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,403 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. ConceptIn Italian art, disegno (“design”; French  dessin) from the early Renaissance already meant more than just “drawing”. Artistic expertise in practice and theory combined in the concept of disegno to found a concept of artistic creativity. Disegno refers on the one hand to the drawing, from the first strokes of the pen in the draft stage to the pictorial final drawing - in other words, the process of demonstrating one's ability and invention by preparing a piece of work. On the other hand the term also denotes the imagi…
Date: 2019-10-14


(861 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Ancient conceptIn sculpture and painting, contrapposto denotes an attitude motif of the human figure consisting of a particular ponderation. Ponderation is the distribution and attitude of the limbs and the body weight either stationary or in motion. It may be static and balanced about a vertical core of the attitude depicted (e.g. standing straight), or it may be displaced radically away from the center of gravity (e.g. in dynamic motion that displaces the upper body). Contrapposto is thus a motif of attitude in the standing figure, connoting as it were motion in stillness.In …
Date: 2019-10-14

Multiple views

(1,053 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. ConceptMultiple views (French  multiplicité des points de vue, Italian  molte vedute, German  Vielansichtigkeit) is a category of evaluation in the field of sculpture. As a criterion of aspect (Latin aspectus, “view”), the analysis of multiple views serves to establish principles of composition in freestanding statues and sculptures against walls (e.g. niche statues, reliefs, tombs) by distinguishing between frontal view and multiple views in the main and side aspects. In art theory, multiple views were considered under …
Date: 2020-04-06


(1,069 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Definition and terminological historyWith free sculpture or “sculpture in the round,” the relief is one of the two main genres of sculpture (Sculpture [subtractive]). Reliefs are bodies or formal structures in a composition (e.g. figures, landscapes, ornaments) – in any of the materials used in subtractive or additive sculpture (Sculpture [modeling]) – that project out of a flat, concave, or round surface. In subtractive sculpture (e.g. in stone or wood), it is the material that determines the he…
Date: 2021-03-15


(1,932 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Concept and periodizationThe epoch term “Rococo” (French rococo; German  Rokoko), as customarily used in art history, covers the period between around 1715/1730 and 1770/1780, dominated by a European cultural and stylistic phenomenon that spread from France and manifested itself mostly in art, crafts, and architecture, though to some extent also in literature (Galant literature; Anacreontics; Pastoral poetry; Idyll). It is much more difficult, however, to apply the term or define the phenomenon in the…
Date: 2021-08-02


(4,770 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland | Zymner, Rüdiger | Langenbruch, Anna
1. IntroductionMannerism in art, literature, and music is generally defined as the characteristic of a self-consciously elaborate or artificial style, and in art history in particular as an epoch located between the Renaissance and the Baroque. The term was coined in art studies in the late 18th century as a derivative of  “manner” (see below, 2.1.). In this context, it refers to a period between around 1520/30 and 1590/1600, a phase supposedly displaying symptoms of decadence in art and architec…
Date: 2019-10-14


(872 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. The word Even an approximate definition of the term grotesque is already distinguished by its etymology: the root word is Italian grotta/ grotte, from which the word grottesche was derived toward the end of the 15th century (first appearance 1495; on the word’s semantic development, see 2. below). In the 16th century, it entered all the major European languages as a loanword (French crotesque and grotesque, Eng. grotesque, Span. grutesco, Dutch Gottisen, Ger. Groteske and Krotteschisch) [4]; [5]. In all languages, generally speaking, the word’s definition is to this da…
Date: 2019-10-14

Sculpture (modeling)

(1,105 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. ConceptThe plastic (from the Greek  plassein/ plattein, “to form,” and  plastikos, “malleable”; Latin  plasticus) art of sculpture by modeling (Sculpture, techniques of) involves making works from malleable (clay, wax, papier maché, stucco, plaster of Paris) or castable materials (metals and other malleable materials that can be made by processes of casting and pouring, e.g. concrete or porcelain). Sculpture by modeling, which builds up material, contrasts with subtractive sculpture, which removes it (e.g.…
Date: 2021-08-02


(2,593 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Concept and roleThe term “portrait” (French  portrait; German Porträt; Italian  ritratto; Spanish  retrato) is derived from the Latin protrahere (to draw forth; to produce). German also still uses the synonymous Bildnis, but Konterfei has become archaic (from the Latin  contra facere, “set in opposition/contrast,” and French  contrefaire, “imitate”; see Contrafaction). The  Sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt (c. 1230) already contains the terms  portrait and contrefais al vif, but Villard uses them to assert fidelity to nature [7. 59–61].During the early moder…
Date: 2021-03-15


(3,730 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit | Kanz, Roland | Riedl, Peter Philipp
1. History 0-1.1. ConceptThe Greek word epochḗ (“suspension, pause”) in everyday speech in Antiquity meant a lull in a speech or a movement, in astronomy the conjunction of two celestial bodies, and in philosophy the suspension of judgment (Skepticism). In the early modern period, the latter two senses were at first dominant. The term only gradually took on a historical sense. As it did so, even until the 18th century, it did not denote a particular span of time, but the event that heralded one. Even …
Date: 2019-10-14


(2,375 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland | Sieglerschmidt, Jörn
1. Etymology and definitionThe word physiognomy (German Physiognomik, Middle English  fisnomy) is derived from Greek  physiognomonikḗ téchne; it means the art of perceiving the total nature of a person’s body from outward signs (literally “perception according to nature”). While physiognomics is more concerned with the narrower field of corporeal signs, physiognomy as it developed in the late Middle Ages and early modern period should be understood as a comprehensive theory of the correlation of all natural things. That said, there is no generally accepted usage even today.P…
Date: 2020-10-06


(2,838 words)

Author(s): Seidel, Robert | Schmidt, Dörte | Kanz, Roland
1. Literature 1.1. DefinitionEver since the term first arose, in Greek antiquity (Greek:  parōdίa, “parallel/side song”; French  parodie; German  Parodie), its meaning in the various European literatures has diverged, both in regard to the particular relationship of the parody to the original (affirmative, playful, critical) and in comparison with related writing strategies (travesty; burlesque; mock-epic; pastiche;  Kontrafaktur [contrafaction], etc.). Until the early modern period, the word tended to be used in the context of a non-polemical concept of  imitatio and …
Date: 2020-10-06

Concluding chapter 9: Literature, art, and music, B. Art

(1,897 words)

Author(s): Kanz, Roland
1. Thematic foci and key articlesIt was only in the late 18th and early 19th centuries that the collective singular “art” coalesced into an umbrella term for all artistic creations that appeared in the field of “art history” in the emergent scientific and scholarly system. Such a complex, refined concept of art did not exist in the early modern period. Classical terms like the Greek  téchne and the Latin  ars were understood in a more general sense as artistic ability or technical skill, that is, the capacity to make things in dealings with working techniques …
Date: 2023-11-14
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