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Chaberis

(61 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Χαβηρὶς ἐμπόριον; Chabērìs empórion). Harbour town of the Soringoi at the mouth of the Chaberos (Kāveri) in southern India, in Ptol. 7,1,13. Old Indian (Tamil) Kāveripaṭṭinam or Pumpuhar; port of the Chola Empire. A Greek settlement is mentioned in classic Tamil poetry. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Apollophanes

(252 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] Attic poet of the Old Comedy Attic poet of the Old Comedy, who according to the witness of Suda wrote five pieces (Δαλίς, Δανάη, Ἰφιγέπων, Κένταυροι, Κρῆτες; Dalís, Danáē, Iphigépōn, Kéntauroi, Krêtes; 1. test. 1), all of which are lost, except for a few remnants. On the inscription list of the Lenaean victors A. figures between Nicophon and Amipsias [1. test. 3]. Hidber, Thomas (Berne) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 518-523. [German version] [2] Personal physician of Antiochos III Son of A. of Seleucia, personal physician ( archiatros) and tropheus of Antiochus III;…

Erannoboas

(58 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ἐραννοβόας; Erannobóas). Tributary of the Ganges according to Arr. Ind. 4,3 and Plin. HN 6,65; Middle Indian Hiraññāha, another name for Śoṇa, the modern Son; although the latter is mentioned separately by both authors as Sonus (Σῶνος; Sônos). Ancient Palibothra/Pāṭaliputra was situated at the confluence of the Son and the Ganges. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Taxila

(183 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Alexander | Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | India, trade with | Mauryas (Τάξιλα/ Táxila, Skt. Takṣaśilā, Middle Ind. Takkasilā, Takṣaila). City in the Punjab between the Indus and the Hydaspes, near modern Islamabad, visited in the spring of 326 BC (Arr. Anab. 5,8; Str. 15,1,28) by Alexander [4] the Great (with map); its young king Taxiles became his faithful follower. T. was already inhabited in prehistoric times, and excavations have reveal…

Limyrice

(78 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Λιμυρική; Limyrikḗ). Indian region on the Malabar coast between Naoura and Nelcynda, with Carura [2] as capital (Ptol. 7,1,8; 85; Peripl. m.r. 53f.). It has been suggested that L. should be regarded as an incorrect reading of Damyrice (Old Indo-Aryan Damila, cf. modern Tamil), but the name is preserved only as L. In this country, modern Kerala, lay the famous harbour town of Muziris. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Wecker, s.v. Limyrike, RE 13, 711f.

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Hippostratus

(186 words)

Author(s): Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἱππόστρατος; Hippóstratos). [German version] [1] Seducer of Periboea Son of Amarynceus who seduced  Periboea, daughter of Hipponous (Apollod. 1,74; Hes. fr. 12 M-W). Schulte-Altedorneburg, Jörg (Marburg) [German version] [2] Nephew of Attalus [1] Nephew of  Attalus [1], brother of  Cleopatra, after whose death he was executed by  Alexander [4] the Great (cf. Iust. 11,5,1); not to be identified with other men by the same name. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 390. [German version] [3] H. Soter Indo-Greek king in Gandhara in the 1st cent. BC One of the later I…

Zoilus

(701 words)

Author(s): Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ζωίλος/ Zōílos). [German version] [1] Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC Greek Sophist from Amphipolis, 4th cent. BC; active in the area of historiography [1], rhetoric [3] and philology; pupil of Polycrates [3], teacher of Anaximenes [2] from Lampsacus and Demosthenes …

Laodice

(2,285 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Λαοδίκη; Laodíkē). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Priamus and Hecuba Daughter of Priamus and Hecabe; her husbands are given as Helicaon (Hom. Il. 3,122-124; 6,252), through whom she was spared enslavement after the fall of Troy (Paus. 10,26,3), or Acamas (Parthenius 16 MythGr), Demophon [2] (Plut. Thes. 34,2) or Telephus (Hyg. Fab. 101). According to Apollodorus (Epit. 5,25), after the fall of Troy she was swallowed up by a cleft in the earth (cf. also Lycoph. 316f.; Tryphiodorus 660f.). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra Daughter of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra, who is mentioned in the early sources (Hom. Il. 9,145) along with Chrysothemis [2] and Iphianassa [2]. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [I 3] Daughter of Agapenor Daughter of Agapenor, who founded a temple to Aphrodite of Paphos in Tegea (Paus. 8,5,2f.; 8,53,7). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography N. Icard-Gianolo, s.v. L. (2), LIMC 6.1, 192…

Orthura

(82 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Ὄρθουρα/ Órthoura). City in the interior of the Soringi in Southern India, residence of King Sornas (Ptol. 7,1,91); probably the Greek form of Uraiyūr, capitol of the Choḷā empire on the Kāveri River, with the port of Chaberis at the mouth of the river. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography K. Karttunen, Early Roman Trade with South India, in: Arctos 29, 1995, 81-91  O. Stein, s.v. Ὄρθουρα, RE 18, 1503-1505.

Cathaei

(108 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Καθαῖοι; Kathaîoi). Indian people in the Punjab either east of the  Hydraotes or between  Hydaspes and  Acesines [2], subjugated by Alexander the Great (Arr. Anab. 5,22; Diod. Sic. 17,91,2; Curt. et al.); perhaps to be identified with Sanskrit

Peucelaotis

(176 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Alexander | Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | Hellenistic states | India, trade with (Πευκελαῶτις/ Peukelaôtis: Arr. Anab. 4,22,7-8,28,6; also Πευκελαῖτις/ Peukelaîtis: Arr. Ind. 1,8; 4,11; Πευκελαῖτις/ Peukelaîtis: Str. 15,1,27; also e.g. Προκλαίς/ Proklaís: Ptol. Geog. 7,1,44; Ποκλαίς/ Poklaís: Peripl. m. Eux. 47f.). City in Gandhāra (in modern Pakistan, west of the Indus; Gandaritis), Old Indian Puṣkalavatī, Middle Indian Pukkhalāvatī, Greek form probably influenced by names with Peuko- ( Peukolaos, Peukésta…

Zamirae

(96 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ζαμῖραι/ Zamîrai, perhaps better Γαμῆραι/ Gamêrai). A tribe, described by Ptol. 7,2,16 as cannibal, in India extra Gangem, beyond the Cirrhadia, roughly in modern Burma ( Argyrâ chṓra, 'silver land' in Ptol. 7,2,17). It is almost impossible to identify the individual peoples and places of southeastern Asia named in Ptol. (attempts in [1] and [2]), because most other sources are from a substantially later period. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 A. Berthelot, L'Asie ancienne centrale et sud-orientale d'après Ptolémée, 1930 2 A. Herrmann, Das Land …

Kanishka

(77 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Kaniṣka). Most prominent ruler of the Indo-Scythians; exact date controversial, begin of his reign approximately AD 100. His empire stretched from Bactria and Sogdiana to the heartland of India, with Bactra, Surkh Kotal, Taxila and Mathurā as important centres. K. maintained relations with Rome and probably used - apart from Indian and Iranian titles - the Greek title kaísar. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography A. L. Basham (ed.), Papers on the Date of K., 1968.

Ozene

(80 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Ὀζήνη/ Ozḗnē). Indian city in the interior of the country east of Barygaza, a former capital city (Peripl. m. Eux. 48); Hellenized form of central Indian Ojjenī (for Old Indian Ujjayinī), the famous metropolis in western India. In Ptol. 7,1,63, O. is the capital city of Tiastanes, identical with the epigraphically attested Kṣatrapa prince Caṣṭana. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Stein, s.v. Ὀζήνη, RE 18, 2048f.

Palimbothra

(199 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | India, trade with | Mauryas (Παλίμβοθρα/ Palímbothra, also Παλίβοθρα/ Palíbothra; name derived from an early Middle Indian form of Old Indian Pāṭaliputra [1. 34]). City of the Prasii, located in a position favourable for communications in the densely populated state of Magadha at the confluence of the Son and Ganges in modern Patna in Bihar. Made by Sandracottus the capital city of the Maurya empire (Mauryas), often mention…

Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…

Colchi

(68 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with Trading city on the south-eastern coast of India, situated opposite  Taprobane (Ptol. 7,1,10; 7,1,95: Kolchikòs kólpos). Peripl. m. r. 58f. made reference to the fact that the coast of  Komarei up to and including C. was important for pearl fishing. C. was probably the city today known as Koṟkai. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Indo-Greeks

(114 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] The Greeks of Hellenistic Bactria ( Graeco-Bactria), who conquered southeastern Afghanistan (Paropamisadae and Arachosia) and northwestern India (modern Pakistan) in the 2nd cent. BC. After the first and most important kings ( Demetrius [10] and Menander) the kingdom disintegrated into several parts whose numerous rulers (almost 40) are mostly attested only by coins. The I. held on until the 1st cent. BC or even the 1st cent. AD, when territories were conquered by the  Parthians a…
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