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Octavius

(2,326 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Widely occurring Roman nomen gentile derived from the numeral praenomen Octavus ('one born in the eighth month', which disappeared later, still surviving in Octavus Mamilius [2]). Of political importance in Rome from the 2nd cent. BC is only the older line which consecutively produced five consuls (O. [I 4-8]; preferred praenomen: Cn.; regarding the family relationships [1. 405-407]); the members of the related younger line (resident in Velitrae), on the other hand, from which the later princeps Augustus originated, did not rise above equestri…

Antonius

(5,913 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Ἀντώνιος; Antṓnios). [German version] [1] Thallus Epigrammatic poet, 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC Epigrammatic poet from Miletus (according to [2] he had received Roman citizenship, through the patronage of Antonia Minor) lived in the 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC (in Anth. Pal. 6,235 the birth of a Καῖσαρ [ Kaîsar] is celebrated, who is to be equated with either C. Julius Caesar, the grandson of Augustus, or with Germanicus). His five epigrams, which derive from the ‘Garland’ of Philippus, are certainly conventional in their…

Iulius

(18,763 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, probably connected with the name of the god  Jupiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. The gens was one of the so-called ‘Trojan families’, who were said to have moved from Alba Longa to Rome under king Tullus Hostilius [I 4] (see below). The Iulii were prominent in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Their connection to the family branch of the Caesares, which rose to prominence from the 3rd cent. and whose outstanding member was the dictator  Caesar (with family tree), is unclear. Caesar's adoptive son,…

Aelius

(3,107 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian house (originally Ailius), verifiable from the 4th cent. BC until the late imperial era. The most important families are the Paeti (since the 4th cent. BC), Tuberones (since the 2nd cent. BC), and from the 1st cent. also the Galli and Lamiae. In the imperial era, especially since Hadrian, the most famous bearer of the name, the name Aelius is so widespread that it -- just like Flavius and Aurelius -- loses its character as nomen gentile. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] Ae. Unknown author of a lex Aelia, mid 2nd cent. BC unknown author of a lex Aelia (mostly mentioned t…

Ateius

(581 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Italic proper name [1. 347, 426], traceable in the public life of Rome since the 1st cent. BC, not very common. [German version] [1] A. Legate of M. Antonius in Gaul, 41/40 BC Legate (?) of M.  Antonius in Gallia in 41/40 BC (MRR 3,26). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A., M. Centurio during the storming of Athens in 86 BC centurio, distinguished himself during the storming of Athens in 86 BC (Plut. Sull. 14,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze. [German version] [3] A. Capito, C. Tribunus plebis 55 BC Fought as tribunus plebis from 55 BC together with…

Caecilius

(6,633 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (probably derived from Caeculus, older form is Caicilios, Greek Καικίλιος, Κεκίλιος [ Kaikílios, Kekílios]; ThlL, Onom. 12-14), whose existence is documented since the 5th cent. (since C. [I 1]), but who only gained importance in the 2nd cent.; their most famous branch were the C. Metelli (I 10-32). A later explanation related the name back to Caeculus, the legendary founder of Praeneste, or Caecas, a companion of Aeneas (Fest. p. 38). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., Q. Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC …

Sinnius Capito

(137 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] Latin grammarian of the 1st cent. BC, a younger contemporary of Varro; his scholarly writings were a source for Verrius Flaccus, Gellius [6] and others. His known works include: a treatise on syllables (the first such work attested in Latin beyond the Liber de litteris syllabisque wrongly attributed to the poet Ennius, Suet. Gram. 1,3); letters (Epistle) with philological content (Gell. NA 5,20,2; 21,9f. notes one addressed to the scholar Clodius [III 4] Tuscus, another addressed to Pacuvius Antistius [I 13] Labeo, father of…

Scribonius

(2,206 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably from Caudium (CIL I2 1744 f.) and attested from the time of the 2nd Punic War. The branch of the Libones (S. [I 5-7; II 4-7]) attained the consulship with S. [I 7] and was part of the Roman high nobility in the early Imperial period. The Curiones (S. [I 1-4]), prominent in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC, disappeared with the Republic. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S. Curio, C. As aedile in 196 BC, he built the Temple of Faunus on the Tiber Island. Praetor urbanus in 183 and the second plebeian to be elected curio [2] maximus

Cloatius Verus

(94 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] Roman lexicographer with antiquarian interests, perhaps from the early Augustan period. He wrote about the meaning of Greek words (at least four ordinatorum Graecorum libri) and on Greek loan-words in Lat. (apparently also at least four bks. Verba a Graecis tracta). C. is quoted as a source by  Gellius (16,12) and  Macrobius (Sat. 3,6,2; 3,20,1). He is quite certainly the same Cloatius, whom  Pompeius Festus ( Verrius Flaccus) cites as a specialist in sacred language, together with L.  Aelius, probably C.'s source. Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) Bibliography GRF 46…

Orbilius Pupillus, L.

(162 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] Latin grammarian. In 63 BC, at the age of 50, O. moved from Beneventum to Rome, having served as apparitor (subaltern attendant to a magistrate) at home and on a Macedonian campaign. He lived to be almost 100. A cantankerous character and harsh critic of the scholarly world of Rome, in which he had no success, his place in the memory of his pupil Horace (Horatius [7]) was by virtue of the beatings he administered (Hor. Epist. 2,1,69-71), but at Beneventum he was honoured with a statue (Suet. Gram. 9…

Crassicius Pasicles (Pansa), L.

(122 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] Originally from Tarentum, he was enslaved but later freed. His working years were the thirties and twenties BC, first as an assistant for mimeographers, then as grammaticus in modest circumstances. His commentary on  Helvius Cinna's Zmyrna brought him popularity and attracted students from respected families (for example Iullus  Antonius [II 1], son of the triumvir). But at the height of his success he closed his school and followed the sect of the Stoic-Pythagorean philosopher Q.  Sextius. It is not known when he changed his name Pasicles to Pansa (Suet. Gram. 18). Kas…

Commentary

(685 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] I. Greek see  Hypomnema Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) [German version] II. Latin   Commentarii ( commentarii, also commentarium) were originally a non-literary assemblage of records concerning the affairs of a household, magistrate or priestly order. Among scholars, commentarii could denote the following: 1. corresponding to the Greek term   hypómnēma , a kind of ‘notebook’ (e.g. Cic. De or. 1,5; Brut. 164; cf. Gellius 16,8,3, who characterizes L.  Aelius' [II 20] Commentarius de proloquiis as follows: ‘Aelius appears to have written this book as advi…

Santra

(100 words)

Author(s): Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
[German version] A Roman tragic poet and scholar whose floruit should probably be dated to the mid-first century BC. As the author of biographies of literary figures, he was a predecessor of Suetonius [2] (vgl. Jer. Vir. ill., praef.), who cites him as an authority on Terentius (vita Ter. 31,10 ff. Reifferscheid) and Lucilius [I 6] (Suet. gramm. 14,4). Quint. inst. 12,10,16 attributes to him a shrewd observation on the origin of Asianism. S. also composed a work  De antiquitate verborum, in at least three books. Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) Bibliography GRF 384-389  R. Mazzacane, S.,…

Cornificius

(439 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kugelmeier, Christoph (Berlin) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton)
Plebeian family name (on coins also Cornuficius, RRC 509); in origin probably the name of a trade (Schulze, 417), historically attested from the 1st cent. BC. [German version] [1] C., L. People's tribune 43 BC, follower of Octavian Son of C. [2], follower of Octavian ( Augustus) in 43 BC, as people's tribune, he accused M. Iunius Brutus of the murder of Caesar (Plut. Brut. 272), in 38 and 36 fought as legate (?) against S.  Pompeius in the Adriatic and in Sicily (App. B Civ. 5,339f.; 360ff; 462ff.; Vell. Pat. 2,79,4). In 35 he was c…