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Community

(5,842 words)

Author(s): Kehrer, Günter | Rüterswörden, Udo | Banks, Robert J. | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Marquardt, Manfred | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Dogmatics – VI. Ethics – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Church Law – IX. Judaism – X. Islam I. History of Religion In the following comments the term community will refer exclusively to a religiously motivated association of people. From the standpoint of the history of religion, the formation of communities is more the exception than the rule. The fact that associations such as tribes, as well, howe…

Ghetto

(511 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Uri R.
[German Version] Not all Jewish quarters were ghettos closed off against the will of the inhabitants. For members of a Jewish community, there were reasons to live together in close proximity to each other (the use of common institutions such as the synagogue, ritual baths, kosher butchers and bakers). In the medieval Islamic realm with its confessional variety, the tradition of distinct city quarters on religious lines developed. In Christian-dominated Europe, things were different. Here, the chu…

Theological Education

(4,903 words)

Author(s): Meireis, Torsten | Hart, Darryl G. | Huhn, Michael. | Roxborogh, John | Kaufmann, Uri | Et al.
[German Version] I. Christianity 1. Europe a. Concept. Christian theological education is a qualification process that involves many different stages; in general its goal is a paid or volunteer position (Voluntary work and associations) in a church that proclaims the gospel and engages in social service (Diakonia) in various fields. Like the churches’ official ministries (Office), institutional training courses vary regionally and denominationally. Determinants include each church’s understanding of the…

Colleges and Universities, Jewish

(485 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Uri R.
[German Version] The tradition of Jewish colleges (Yeshivah) goes back to ancient times and derives from the study of written and oral teachings. Medieval Hebrew designations for academic degrees come astonishingly close to the Latin ones: chawer/magister, moreh/doctor. Groups cultivating religious traditions developed around the Yeshivot, as for example those belonging to Ashkenazi Judaism (II) in Speyer, Worms, and Mainz. Around 1800, governments began to consider how to improve the educational level of Jews and attempted to modernize the Jewish…

Jewish economic life

(1,189 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Uri
1. Iberian peninsula and eastern Europe Spanish Jews were forced to choose between conversion and persecution in 1492 (Refugees of conscience; Sephardim). Half of them fled to Portugal (where they were forcibly baptized in 1497), North Africa, northern Italy, and the Ottoman Empire (the Jewish communities in Istanbul, Thessaloniki/Salonika, and Izmir/Smyrna received substantial reinforcement; Jewish society). In the German Empire, most city authorities had already driven the Jews out by this point in…
Date: 2019-10-14

Jüdisches Wirtschaftsleben

(1,064 words)

Author(s): Kaufmann, Uri
1. Iberische Halbinsel und OsteuropaIn Spanien wurden die Juden 1492 vor die Wahl zwischen Konversion und Vertreibung gestellt (Glaubensflüchtlinge; Sephardim). Die Hälfte von ihnen floh nach Portugal (wo sie 1497 zur Taufe gezwungen wurden), Nordafrika, Norditalien und ins Osmanische Reich (bedeutende jüd. Gemeinden existierten in Istanbul, Saloniki und Izmir; Jüdische Gesellschaft). Im Alten Reich hatten die meisten Stadträte die Juden zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits vertrieben; sie siedelten sich auf dem Lande, in Norditalien und im Königreich Polen-Litauen an, das – nac…
Date: 2019-11-19