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al-Almālī, Maḥmūd

(1,356 words)

Author(s): Kemper, Michael
Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad al-Almālī al-Shirwānī al-Dāghistānī (c. 1810–77) was a shaykh of the Naqshbandiyya-Khālidiyya Ṣūfī brotherhood and the eponym of its Maḥmūdiyya branch in Daghestan. The Naqshbandiyya was founded in Bukhara by Bahāʾ al-Dīn (d. 786/1384) and is widespread. Its orthodox Khālidī branch was founded by Mawlānā Khālid al-Baghdādī (d. 1827), a Kurd trained in India in the Mujaddidī tradition initiated by Shaykh Aḥmad Sirhindī (d. 1033/1624), posthumously known as the “renewer” (mujaddid) of Islam in the second millenium. From Iraq, the Khālidiyya spread r…
Date: 2021-07-19

Daghestan

(8,251 words)

Author(s): Kemper, Michael
Daghestan (Dāghistān) is a republic of the Russian Federation. Located in the northeastern Caucasus, it has an area of 50,300 square kilometres and borders Kalmykia and the Stavropol region in the north, Chechnya and Georgia in the west, Azerbaijan in the south, and the Caspian Sea in the east. Daghestan’s geography ranges from coastal plain to foothills to alpine areas. The population of 2,910,249 (2010 census) includes speakers of Turkic languages (Kumyks, 14.9 percent; Azeris, 4.5 percent; N…
Date: 2021-07-19

Ḥamzat-Bek al-Dāghistānī

(772 words)

Author(s): Kemper, Michael
Ḥamzat-Bek (Ḥamza Bīk) b. ʿAlī Iskandar-Bek al-Hūtsādī al-Awārī al-Dāghistānī (1789–1834) was, between 1832 and 1834, the political and military leader (imām) of the jihād movement that fought for the implementation of Islamic law in Daghestan, against the Daghestani Muslim communities and principalities that maintained customary law (ʿādāt) and against the Russian army that supported parts of the local nobility. The son of an Avar nobleman from the village of Gotsatl, on the Avar Plateau of central Daghestan, and a mother of non-noble background, Ḥamza…
Date: 2021-07-19

Chechnya

(5,319 words)

Author(s): Kemper, Michael
Chechnya, historically the territory of the Chechens—who call themselves Nokhchi, or, together with the Ingush, Vainakh, “our people”—is situated between the main Caucasus range in the south and the Terek River in the north and includes various settlements and pastures north of the Terek (Illustration 1). It comprises mountains, foothills, and plains crossed by several tributaries to the Sunzha and Terek rivers (roughly from the Fortanga, in the west, to the Aksai and Aktash, in Daghestan, in th…
Date: 2021-07-19

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Thughūrī

(1,354 words)

Author(s): Kemper, Michael
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Aḥmad al-Thughūrī (al-Ṣughūrī) (b. 1207/1792–3, d. 1299/1882) was a shaykh of the jihād-oriented branch of the Naqshbandiyya-Khālidiyya Ṣūfī brotherhood in Daghestan. The widespread Naqshbandī order was founded in Bukhara by Bahāʾ al-Dīn (d. 786/1384); its orthodox Khālidī branch was founded by Mawlānā Khālid al-Baghdādī (d. 1242/1827), a Kurd trained in India in the Mujaddidī current initiated by Shaykh Aḥmad Sirhindī (d. 1624), known posthumously as the “renewer” (mujaddid) of Islam in the second millennium. From Iraq, the Khālidiyya quickly sp…
Date: 2021-07-19

Kunta-Ḥājjī

(2,061 words)

Author(s): Kemper, Michael | Shikhaliev, Shamil
Kunta-Ḥājjī al-Iliskhānī (Kishiev) (c.1800–67) was a Chechen Ṣūfī master, the eponymous founder of the Kunta-Ḥājjī branch of the Qādiriyya brotherhood active in Chechnya, Ingushetia, and Daghestan; this branch is well-known for its dhikr dance practice (the Qādiriyya is a widespread Ṣūfī order of which ʿAbd al-Qādir Jīlānī, d. 561/1166, a Ḥanbalī scholar active in Baghdad, became, after his death, the namesake and patron; dhikr (lit., remembrance) is the central Ṣūfī devotional exercise, in which participants recite a name or series of names of God, or a li…
Date: 2021-07-19

Customary law 4. The Northeast Caucasus

(2,079 words)

Author(s): Bobrovnikov, Vladimir O. | Kemper, Michael
Muslims of the Northeast Caucasus (present-day republics of Daghestan, Chechnya, and Ingushetia within the Russian Federation, as well as some adjacent borderlands of Azerbaijan and Georgia) usually employ the Arabic word ʿādāt to refer to their customary law. The term is used to refer to legal customs that supplement (and often contradict) Islamic law, sharī‘a; in addition, ʿ ādāt also comprises non-legal custom, which is not dealt with here. Synonyms are batl (Avar), zega (Dargin), kkhel (Chechen and Ingush), türe (Kumyk/Turkic), and, in local Arabic-language legal sources, ʿ urf…
Date: 2021-07-19