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Bible - Versions

(4,005 words)

Author(s): Kevin Smyth
Part of Bible: 1. Introduction 2. Versions 3. Biblical Hermeneutics 4. Scripture Reading A. General This article will not offer a detailed survey of the main translations of the Bible, for which the reader is referred to the biblical dictionaries (see also bibliography). The aim will rather be to note the more or less theological problems to which translation has given rise in history. 1. Historical survey. Translation of the Bible began in the ОТ period, in the 3rd century B.C., when Hebrew had been replaced by Aramaic as the usual language of popular intercourse. Since th…


(2,702 words)

Author(s): Kevin Smyth
1. Historical. Zionism has had three aspects. The first was the “practical Zionism” occasioned by pogroms in Russia, 1881 on, and also inspired by the writings of L. Pinsker ( Auto-Emancipation [ 1882; Е. T., 1891]), head of the movement of the Hoveve Zion, the “Lovers of Zion”. Funds were raised by Western Jews, institutionalized as the Palestinian Office, Jaffa, 1908, and it brought some 60,000 Jews to Palestine, then a province of the Turkish Empire, by 1914. The second aspect was “political Zionism”, crystallized in year…

Curia - Reform and Present Structure

(2,731 words)

Author(s): Kevin Smyth
Part of Curia: 1. Historical Evolution 2. Reform and Present Structure The demand for “decentralization” in the Church, which was heard during the preparations for Vatican II, became more and more strongly linked as time went on with the demand for reform of the Curia. In an allocution to the members of the Curia (21 September 1963, AAS 55 [1963], pp. 793 –800), Paul VI responded by announcing his intention of reforming the Curia. He invited the Council to discuss the question, and the main results of the discussions were then embodied in the decree on the bishops ( Christus Dominus). The Coun…