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(31 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Wife of P. Vitellius (died AD 31), was condemned in AD 37 for lèse-majesté (Tac. Ann. 6,47,1). PIR2 A. 102. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography Raepsat-Charlier 1, no. 5.


(30 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] T.C. Former praetorian who in AD 24 instigated an uprising of the slaves in Brundisium that was soon put down (Tac. Ann. 4,27). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Augustus [1]

(5,528 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] A. Origin and adoption by Caesar Born on 23 September 63 BC in Rome as the son of C.  Octavius and  Atia [1], from an affluent family that did not belong to the nobility. A. lost his father at the age of four and was raised by his mother, a niece of Caesar (Tac. Dial. 28,5), first in Velitrae, then in the house of his stepfather L. Marcius Philippus (Nic. Damas. FGrH 2 A no. 90 F 127,5, whose biography dates back to the autobiography of A.). In 51, A. made the funerary speech for his grandmother Iulia (Suet. Aug. 8,1). On 18 October 48, he took on the toga virilis and soon thereafter was elected pontifex ([1. p. 53]; …


(134 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
Uncommon family name. [German version] [1] C., P. Commander in Spain under Augustus Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Spain, defeated the Asturians in 25 BC, conquered the fortress of Lancia and settled veterans in the colonia Emerita (Flor. Ep. 2,33,54-58; Cass. Dio 53,25,8-26,1). In 22, he crushed an Asturian revolt (Cass. Dio 54,5,1f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography RIC 11, Augustus, no. 277-303 P. le Roux, L'armée Romaine et l'organisation des provinces Ibériques, 1982, 64ff. [German version] [2] C., T. Mint master around 46 BC Mint master c. 46 BC (RRC 475f. no. 4…

Cremutius Cordus

(184 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Roman historiographer (and senator?) of the Augustan-Tiberian period. He incurred L.  Aelius [II 19] Seianus' hatred and was accused in AD 25 before the senate lege maiestatis, because he had glorified Caesar's murderers Brutus and Cassius in his Annales. After an honest defence, he took his own life by refusing food. His writings were confiscated and burned in Rome and in the empire. However, his daughter Marcia, the recipient of Seneca's consolatory discourse, was able to save several books. Under Caligula, a new, ‘…


(10,704 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a Roman lineage (Sabine Clausus, with the vernacular variant of   Clodius , esp. in the 1st cent. BC). The Claudii supposedly immigrated to Rome from the Sabine city of Regillum at the beginning of the republic in 504 BC under their ancestor Att(i)us Clausus ( Appius) and were immediately accepted into the circle of patrician families (Liv. 2,16,4-6), which explains why the early members received the invented epithets of Inregillensis C. [I 5-6] and Sabinus C. [I 31-32], [1. 155f.]. The praenomen Appius came to signify the family. Named after them was the Tribus Claudi…


(46 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Imperial freedman of the Augustan age (Suet. Aug. 67,1). In c. 7-4 BC he unmasked the alleged son of Herod, the false Alexander (Ios. Ant. Iud. 17,332; Bell. Iud. 2,106-110). Perhaps mentioned in CIL VI 23338 and XIV 3524. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)


(1,382 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Meyer, Doris (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] of Rome 3rd bishop of Rome, 2nd cent. AD (?) Since  Irenaeus (Haer. 3,3,3) recorded as the third bishop of Rome in the list of Roman bishops although the Roman congregation was probably led by a college of presbyters and not a bishop alone in the late 1st cent. All information on C. comes from later centuries and documents the historical development of an image of C. but not the historical person. Dionysius of Corinth (Eus. HE, 4,23,11) considered C. the author of a letter of the Roman c…

Carsidius Sacerdos

(54 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Acquitted in AD 23 of the charge that he provided grain to  Tacfarinas in Africa (Tac. Ann. 4,13,3). Praetor urbanus in 27 (InscrIt 13,1 p. 299). In 37, he was exiled to an island because of his contact with  Albucilla (Tac. Ann. 6,48,4). PIR2 C 451. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Clutorius Priscus

(67 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Roman knight, author of a poem on the death of Germanicus, for which he was rewarded with money. When Drusus minor, Tiberius' son, was ill and C. boasted of having prepared a poem to mark his death also, the emperor had him executed in AD 21 (Tac. Ann. 3,49-51; Cass. Dio 57,20,3). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography H. Bardon,La littérature latine inconnue, 2, 1956, 74f.


(507 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Vipsania, married to Tiberius from 16-12 BC Vipsania, daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa with Caecilia Attica (Nep. Att. 19,4). Born c. 33 BC, married to Tiberius from 16-12 (Suet. Tib. 7,2 f.), whom she bore Drusus Caesar in 15 (Drusus the Younger). Married C. Asinius Gallus after her divorce from Tiberius (Tac. Ann. 1,12; stemma RE 9 A 1232). Died in AD 20 (Tac. Ann. 3,19,3). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography Raepsat-Charlier 1, no. 811. [German version] [2] Vipsania (A. maior), wife of Germanicus Vipsania (A. maior), daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrip…


(616 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] C. Auctus, L. Architect, late 1st cent. BC Freedman of C. Postumius (Pollio). Architect (CIL X 1614), who constructed the road tunnels between Lake Avernus and Cumae and between Puteoli and Naples for M. Vipsanius  Agrippa [1] (Str. 5,5,245). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography H. Benario, C. and Cumae, in: CB 35, 1959, 40-41 D. Kienast, Augustus, 1982, 347 fn. 148, 348 fn. 153. [German version] [2] C.C. Balbus Cos. suff. 39 BC Cos. suff. in 39 BC (InscrIt 13,1, p. 282; 291; 278; 135; 506; MRR 2, 386). As a supporter of M.  Antonius he was …


(64 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Donkey driver with a donkey by the name of Nicon, whom Octavian met before the battle of Actium and who became an omen. Octavian had a brazen image erected of E. and his donkey (Suet. Aug. 96,2; Plut. Antonius 65.5), which was later transferred to Constantinople, but was destroyed in 1204 (Niketas Choniates 6 [PG 139,1049,1ff.]).  Omen Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)


(54 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Wife of Satrius Secundus, infamous for her affairs, was accused of disrespect ( impietas) towards the princeps and died in AD 37 after a suicide attempt in prison. Several respected senators were involved in her downfall (Tac. Ann. 6,47,2 ff.; Cass. Dio 58,27,4). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Impietas in principem, 1974, 130 ff.


(558 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἐπαφρόδιτος; Epaphróditos). [German version] [1] Freedman of Octavian Freedman of Octavian, who in the year 30 BC was supposed to keep Cleopatra from committing suicide, but was allegedly outwitted by the queen (Plut. Antonius 79,6; Cass. Dio 51,13,4f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography K. Kraft, KS 1, 1973, 38f. [German version] [2] Freedman of Nero Freedman of Nero, therefore Ti. Claudius Aug(usti) lib(ertus) E. by his full name. First accepted as an imperial freedman into the city of Rome's decuriae, i.a. apparitor Caesarum and viator tribunicius; later a libellis o…


(94 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Very rare family name. C. commanded several cohorts under  Caesar in the Alexandrinian War (Bell. Alex. 31,1-3). After the Ides of March 44 BC, he joined Octavian ( Augustus), and was expelled from the Senate on 28 November 44 (C(Cic. Phil. 3,23), perhaps because he was a people's tribune (MRR 2,324). In April 43, he was sent to Mutina, where M.  Antonius attacked both him and the consul Pansa; C.'s wing fought victoriously, but he himself probably died in the aftermath (Cic. Fam. 10,33,4; App. B Civ. 3,272ff.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)

Abudius Ruso

(49 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] Former aedile and legionary legate under Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus in Upper Germany. A. accused him, because he had designated the son of L.  Aelius [II 19] Seianus as his son-in-law, but he was then banned himself (Tac. Ann. 6,30,2). PIR2 A. 17. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)


(1,444 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
According to modern etymology, the name derives from *agrei-pod-, ‘having the feet in front’ (according to Leumann, 398, ‘very dubious’). Originally a praenomen (thus still in the Iulii, especially A. Postumus), then a cognomen in the families of the Antonii, Asinii, Cassii(?), Fonteii, Furii, Haterii, Helvii, Iulii, Lurii, Menenii, Vibuleni, Vipsanii, but also of Jewish kings ( Herodes A.). Documented as name of various persons. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] [1] M. Vipsanius, consul 37, 28, 27 BC M. Vipsanius, born 64/3 BC, of knightly lineage, probabl…


(93 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] King in the lower Danube region about 40 BC., according to Flor. 2,28 of the Dacians (according to Suet. Aug. 63,2 of the Gaetae). Florus and Horace (Carm. 3,8,18) report that he suffered a defeat at the hands of the Romans, probably in 30/29 (cf. [1]). Information by Antony that Octavian planned to establish a family relationship with C. is probably just a rumour (Suet. ibid.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography 1 A. Mócsy, Der vertuschte Dakerkrieg des M. Licinius Crassus, in: Historia 15, 1966, 511-514. A. Mócsy, Pannonia and Upper Moesia, 1974, 23f.


(98 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting)
[German version] [1] Defender of an African fort 20 AD Defender of a fort on the river Pagyda in Africa, captured in AD 20 by Tacfarinas; D. perished courageously in the action (Tac. Ann. 3,20,1f.). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) Bibliography Demougin, no. 233. [German version] [2] L.D. Husband of Paconia Agrippina Husband of Paconia Agrippina, honoured by the Rhodians (IGR 3,1126). Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] [3] D. Calpurnianus Praefectus vigilum, killed in 48 AD praef. vigilum, killed in AD 48 as a consequence of his relationship with Messalina (Ta…
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