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Rodin, Auguste

(164 words)

Author(s): Kitschen, Friederike
[German Version] (Nov 12, 1849, Paris – Nov 17, 1917, Meudon/Paris), French sculptor and draftsman, pupil of Antoine-Louis Barye and others. Rodin worked for the Sèvres factory; he assisted the sculptor Rasbourg in Brussels from 1871 to 1878, then had his own studios in Paris and Meudon. On his travels Rodin was deeply influenced by the art of Michelangelo and by French Gothic cathedral sculpture. Rodin’s works show Impressionist features in the modeling of deeply indented surfaces that bring out …

Pissarro, Camille

(524 words)

Author(s): Kitschen, Friederike
[German Version] (Jul 10, 1830, St. Thomas, Danish West Indies – Nov 13, 1903, Paris), French painter and graphic artist, a key figure of Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism. Born to Jewish parents of French descent, Pissarro grew up on the Danish island of St. Thomas in the Antilles. He received his artistic training in Paris as a private student of painters of the École des Beaux-Arts and at the private Académie Suisse, where he met Claude Monet and Paul Cézanne around 1860. Pissarro’s early landscapes echo the en plein air painting of the Barbizon school, especially those of Jea…

Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre-Cécile

(219 words)

Author(s): Kitschen, Friederike
[German Version] (Dec 14, 1824, Lyon – Oct 24, 1898, Paris), French painter. In 1848/1849, Puvis studied at the ateliers of Eugène Delacroix and Thomas Couture in Paris, but he trained himself primarily by copying Old Masters in the Louvre and on trips to Italy in 1846 and 1848. Although he was not a typical Salon painter and went his own artistic way, his Neoclassical works were a success at the Salon, where he exhibited regularly after 1857 – unlike his friend and colleague Edouard Manet. In 186…

Renoir, Pierre-Auguste

(329 words)

Author(s): Kitschen, Friederike
[German Version] (Feb 25, 1841, Limoges – Dec 3, 1919, Cagnes near Nice), French painter and sculptor. Renoir initially worked as a porcelain painter, but then studied to become a painter at Charles Gleyre’s studio in Paris and at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1862 to 1864. Under the influence of the school of Barbizon and Gustave Courbet, Renoir and his fellow students Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley, and Frédéric Bazille turned to outdoor painting and to realistic subjects. Around 1869, in cooperation with Monet, Renoir developed Impressionism on the banks of the Seine ( La Grenouil…


(2,038 words)

Author(s): Kitschen, Friederike
[German Version] I. Concept and Representatives – II. Character and Painting Technique – III. Rise and Development – IV. Influence – V. Dissemination I. Concept and Representatives Impressionism is a movement in art, predominantly in painting and the graphic arts, that developed in France in the 1860s, and until the first third of the 20th century extended to the art of other countries. Impressionism worked for a renewal of art in form and content, and thus, like Romanticism and Realism before it, opposed the neoclas…


(214 words)

Author(s): Kitschen, Friederike
[German Version] A group of artists and an association of friends founded by Paul Sérusier in Paris in 1888. It included, among others, Pierre Bonnard, Maurice Denis, and from 1890 Édouard Vuillard, Ker-Xavier Roussel, Paul Valloton, and Aristide Maillol. The term nabis comes from the Hebrew nebiʾı̑m, “prophets” or “enlightened ones,” and stressed the group's idealistic and symbolistic artistic claims in contrast to the illusionist imitation aesthetics of the Académie des Beaux-Arts. The object depicted should be subordinate to the means of…

Liebermann, Max

(455 words)

Author(s): Kitschen, Friederike
[German Version] (Jul 20, 1847, Berlin – Feb 8, 1935, Berlin) was an important painter and graphic designer in German Realism (IV) and Impressionism. The son of a rich Jewish entrepreneurial family, Liebermann began his training in 1866 with the Berlin painter Carl Scheffeck and attended the Weimar Art School in 1868/1869. Artistic role models such as Mihaly Munkascsy and J.F. Millet shaped Liebermann's anti-academic, realistic concept of art and his preference for subjects from agricultural and m…


(2,772 words)

Author(s): Meyer-Abich, Klaus Michael | Danz, Christian | Kitschen, Friederike | Hurst, Matthias
[German Version] I. Philosophy Naturalism is a polysemous concept; its meaning depends on whether it is used (1) affirmatively or (2) with critical intention, depending on the presupposed understanding of nature. ¶ 1. Affirmative naturalism. When (a) the one nature of all things is contained in God in such a way that nothing can be contrasted with it, the gods and human beings are also (and unconditionally) conceived of as parts of this whole. The gods are then identical with the forces of nature (as in Greek religion [Greece: I,…


(4,743 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael | Großhans, Hans-Peter | Kitschen , Friederike | Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel | Linde, Gesche
[German Version] I. Philosophy Realism in a given area B means the ontological thesis that names or terms used in a theory of B refer to things that exist independently of human thought. For example, in natural realism the existence of stones, trees, and ¶ tables is assumed; in scientific realism, that of electrons, force fields, and quarks (see V below); in mathematical realism, that of numbers and quantities; or in ethical realism, that of moral values. Critics of realism object, for example, that moral values are an expression of value…