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Commitment, in modern Arabic literature

(1,185 words)

Author(s): Klemm, Verena
Literary commitment (iltizām) became a central concept in literary discussions during the decades of nation-building in the postcolonial Arab world. The demand that writers and poets take responsibility for their people had already been expressed in the 1920s by socialist authors and critics, such as Salāma Mūsā (1887–1959) and Luwīs ʿAwaḍ (1915–90) in Egypt and ʿUmar Fākhūrī (1895–1946) and Raʾīf Khūrī (1912–67) in Syro-Lebanon. The origins of this concept can be traced to the complex sociocultural changes that occurred during the nahḍa (lit., renaissance), the movement of …
Date: 2021-07-19


(588 words)

Author(s): Klemm, Verena
1. The Baha’i religion arose in the 19th century in Iran out of the reforming movement of ʿAlī Moḥammad (1819/20–50), known as the Bāb, which ¶ was directed against the orthodoxy of the Shiite clergy (Islam). Its founder, Bahāʾ Allāh (1817–92), whose name means “glory of God,” declared that he was a follower of the traditional prophets (§1) seeking to actualize in his own time the spirit of their teaching. He gave written form to his humanitarian, cosmopolitan concept in Al-Kitab al-Aqdas, or Most Holy Book. After his death in exile in Palestine, his son ʿAbd ol-Bahā’ (…

Fāṭima bt. Muḥammad

(4,451 words)

Author(s): Klemm, Verena
Fāṭima, daughter of the prophet Muḥammad and his first wife Khadīja, is venerated throughout the Islamic world. She married her father’s cousin ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, and gave birth to al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn, the only male descendants of the Prophet. Historical sources on her life are scarce and often shaped by religio-political tendencies. Fāṭima is the numinous female figure of Islam, adored in religious traditions and cosmogonic myths of the Shīʿa. As the favourite daughter of the Prophet and bearer of his baraka, she is also honoured in Sunnī Islam and popular belief. 1. Scholarship Decad…
Date: 2021-07-19

فاطمة بنت محمد

(3,918 words)

Author(s): Klemm, Verena
[English edition] فاطمة بنت النبيّ محمد، وزوجته الأولى خديجة، حظيت بالتّعظيم في العالم الإسلاميّ. تزوّجت فاطمة من ابن عمّ والدها عليّ بن أبي طالب وأنجبت منه الحسن والحسين، وهما الذكران الوحيدان المنحدران من سلالة الرّسول. وتعدّ المصادر التّاريخيّة عن حياة فاطمة نادرة، تكيّفها في أغلب الأحيان الاتّجاهات الدينيّة والسّياسيّة. مثّلت فاطمة صورة الأنثى الأكثر شهرة في الإسلام، فمقامها في الموروث الدّيني وفي أساطير الكون الشيعيّة، هو مقام المعظّمة، ولمّا كانت فاطمة ابنة النبيّ المفضّلة وحاملة بركته، فقد حظيت أيضاً بمقام شريف في الإسلام السنيّ واعتقادات عوام النّاس. 1. الدّراسات العلميّة لق…