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Napoleon I.

(560 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] (Napolione Buonaparte; 15.8.1769 Ajaccio, Korsika – 5.5.1821 St. Helena), Kaiser der Franzosen. 1785 franz. Artillerieleutnant, 1793 der »Bergpartei« um M. Robespierre verbunden und nach der Rückeroberung von Toulon (Dezember 1793) zum General befördert, wurde N. nach dem 9. Thermidor (27.7.1794) vorübergehend aus der Armee entlassen. Nach der Niederschlagung des royalistischen Aufstandes in Paris (5.10.1795) 1796 Oberbefehlshaber der Italienarmee, führten seine Siege zum Frieden…

Oldenbarnevelt

(296 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Oldenbarnevelt, Johann van (25.9.1547 Amersfoort – 13.5.1619 Den Haag), niederländischer Politiker, trat 1585 für die Berufung von Moritz von Oranien zum Statthalter von Holland und Seeland ein, war seit 1586 Ratspensionär der Provinz Holland, trug gemeinsam mit Moritz nach 1587 die Konsolidierung der Republik der Vereinigten Niederlande und handelte 1609 den zwölfjährigen Waffenstillstand mit Spanien aus. O. stand auf der Seite der Arminianer und der Remonstration von 1610 und ent…

Schwendi

(108 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Schwendi, Lazarus von (1522 Mittelbiberach – 28.5.1584 Kirchhofen im Breisgau), kaiserlicher Feldoberst, studierte in Basel und Straßburg, nahm am Schmalkaldischen Krieg, an den Kämpfen gegen Frankreich und, seit 1564 als Oberbefehlshaber, in Ungarn teil. In Denkschriften, v.a. von 1570 und 1574, trat er für Verbesserungen der Kreisverfassung und des Kriegswesens des Reiches mit dem Ziel einer stärkeren Zentralisierung und auf den Reichstagen zw. 1566 und 1576 für den Land- und Religionsfrieden und für rel. Toleranz ein. Harm Klueting Bibliography Vf. u.a…

Turgot

(87 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques (10.5.1727 Paris – 20.3.1781 ebd.), von der Physiokratie beeinflußter Wirtschaftstheoretiker, seit 1774 Generalkontrolleur der Finanzen, suchte den Staatsbankrott Frankreichs durch Einsparungen und Steuerreformen abzuwenden. Mit seinen Reformedikten brachte er die Privilegierten gegen sich auf und wurde am 10.5.1776 entlassen. Harm Klueting Bibliography E. Brian, La mesure de l'etat, 1994, dt. Staatsvermessungen, 2001 M. Hill, Statesman of Enlightenment, 1999 J.-P. Poirier, T. Laissez-faire et progrès social, 1999 B. P…

Simultaneum

(520 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] . S. bez. im weiteren Sinne 1. das gleichberechtigte (Parität) oder für eine Seite erzwungene Zusammenleben zweier oder mehrerer Konfessionen in einem Territorium und im engeren Sinne 2. die gemeinsame Nutzung kirchl. Einrichtungen, v.a. von Kirchengebäuden, durch Angehörige zweier oder mehrerer Konfessionen. Unter 1. fällt das durch die Rijswijker Klausel (1697) begründete Nebeneinander von Reformierten, Lutheranern und Katholiken in der Kurpfalz und in den restituierten Réunion…

Simultaneum

(627 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] In the broader sense (1), a simultaneum is the coexistence of two or more denominations in one territory, in parity or under constraint for one party. In a narrower sense (2), it involves the shared use of church facilities, especially church buildings, by members of two or more denominations. An example of (1) is the coexistence of Reformed, Lutherans, and Catholics in the Electoral Palatinate and the restored occupied territories under the Rijswijk Clause (1697). Prior to 1679/1…

Marnix, Philipp

(465 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Filips), Heer van Sint-Aldegonde (1540, Brussels – Dec 15, 1598, Leiden), Flemish politician and academic, of a Savoyard family, who came to the Netherlands with the regent Margaret of Austria; he combined political Calvinism, theological polemic, and patriotic poetry. Marnix studied at Leuven, Paris, Dôle, Padua, and finally Geneva, whence he returned to the Netherlands in 1561 as a Calvinist. After the iconoclastic riots of 1566, in exile in eastern Friesland he wrote an apologia for the uprising (1567) and several polemical works, including De Bijenkorf der H…

Retz, Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de

(203 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (baptized Sep 20, 1613, Montmirail, Département Marne – Aug 24, 1679, Paris). After studying theology, he was appointed coadjutor of Paris 1644; in 1652 he was made a cardinal, in 1654 archbishop of Paris, and in 1662 abbot of St. Denis. A political opponent of J. Mazarin and Louis XIV, he organized the uprising of the Fronde (1648–1653). He was arrested in 1652 but was appointed archbishop while still in prison. He was forced to resign his office (not recognized by Pope Innocent …

Lipsius, Justus

(214 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Joest Lips; Oct 18, 1547, Overijse, near Brussels – Mar 23, 1606, Louvain), late Humanist and Latin philologist. Lipsius was professor at Jena from 1572 to 1574, moved to Louvain in 1576, to Leiden in 1578, and back to Louvain in 1592. He changed his religious allegiance frequently. His rediscovery of the Stoics and the spread of neo-Stoicism, e.g. in Brandenburg-Prussia, were of immense importance. Harm Klueting Bibliography Works include: De Constantia, 1584 (Lat.-Ger., 1998) On Lipsius: G. Oestreich, Geist und Gestalt des frühmodernen Staates, 1969 G. Abel, Stoiz…

L'Hospital, Michel de

(384 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (L'Hôpital; 1507, Aigueperse, Puy-de-Dôme – Mar 13, 1573, Bellébat near Paris) was a French statesman who had studied in Toulouse and Padua, and a jurist educated in theology and the humanities. From 1537, he was a member of the “Parlement” in Paris, and in 1547 he participated in the Council of Trent. After holding high state offices, in 1560 he became chancellor to the queen mother Catharine de Medici (1519–1589), who was regent during the minority of Charles IX (reigned from 15…

Napoleon

(706 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Napolione Buonaparte; Aug 15, 1769, Ajaccio, Corsica – May 5, 1821, St. Helena), emperor of the French. Lieutenant of the French artillery since 1785, Napoleon joined the “Montangards” around M. Robespierre in 1793; after the recapture of Toulon in December of 1793, he was promoted to general. After 9 Thermidor (Jul 27, 1794), he was temporarily dismissed from the army. After the defeat of the royalist uprising in Paris (Oct 5, 1795), he was made commander in chief of the Army of…

Schwendi, Lazarus von

(130 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (1522, Mittelbiberach – May 28, 1584, Kirchhofen im Breisgau), imperial diplomat and military commander. After studying at Basel and Straßburg (Strasbourg), he led forces in the Schmalkaldic War, wars with France, and (as commander-in-chief after 1564) in Hungary. In memoranda (esp. 1570 and 1574), he urged improvements in the Empire’s district organization and warfare, with the goal of greater centralization. At the Imperial Diets between 1566 and 1576, he urged public and religious peace, along with religious toleration. Harm Klueting Bibliography Works incl…

Spifame, Jacques

(187 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (1502, Paris – Mar 23, 1566, Genega), seigneur de Passy. After studying law, he was appointed counselor of state and parliamentary counselor in Paris; he was appointed bishop of Nevers in 1548. In 1559 he resigned, fled to Geneva, and became a Protestant, having been suspected of Protestant sympathies for some time. In the background was an adulterous relationship in the distant past and a desire to legitimate a love affair and the children it produced. Together with T. Beza, Spif…

Richelieu, Jean Armand du Plessis, Duke of

(700 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Sep 9, 1585, Paris – Dec 4, 1642, Paris), French statesman and cardinal (1622). Richelieu gained the degree of Dr.theol. at the Sorbonne in 1607; in 1608, with papal dispensation because he was under the canonical age, he became bishop of Luçon, and in that capacity took part in the assembly of the States-General of 1614. In its final session he made a speech supporting the policies of the regent Marie de Medici, who in 1616 appointed him a minister in the council of state. After…

Hoen, Cornelisz Hendricxz

(335 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (also Hoon, Honius, Honnius; died 1524 in The Hague) attended the school of the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life in Utrecht and became an attorney at law in The Hague. In 1523, he was imprisoned after a religious disputation. Hoen had acquired Wessel Gansfort's De sacramento eucharistiae from the estate of the deceased Jacobus Hoeck, the reading of which led him to interpret the est in hoc est corpus meum (1Cor 11:24) in the sense of significat. The letter in which he discloses this interpretation to J. (Hinne) Rode, which some believe to have origin…

Frederick the Great

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1712, Berlin – Aug 17, 1786, Sanssouci near Potsdam), king in (from 1772: of) Prussia. Following a strict religious upbringing, the son of Frederick William I soon turned to a religion of reason, which led to clashes with his father in 1726. The conflict escalated when the crown prince tried to escape in 1730, whereupon he was held under arrest in Küstrin. The price of the reconciliation with his father was Frederick's marriage to Elisabeth Christine v. Braunschweig-Bever…

Riegger, Paul Joseph von

(221 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1705, Freiburg im Breisgau – Dec 2, 1775, Vienna), canonist. After studying in Leiden and elsewhere, and gaining his Dr.iur.utr. in Freiburg, Riegger served from 1733 to 1749 as professor of natural and imperial law in Innsbruck, was in 1749 at the Savoy Ritterakademie in Vienna, and from 1753 to 1773 professor of canon law at Vienna University. Riegger was ennobled in 1764. Through theoretical separation of church and state, and demarcation of their areas of responsibili…

Montgelas, Maximilian Joseph

(158 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (from 1809, Count; Sep 10, 1759, Munich – Jun 14, 1838, Munich), son of a Bavarian general of Savoyard descent. Montgelas wrote in 1789 the Mémoire instructif sur les droits des ducs de Bavière en matière ecclésiastique, and in 1796 the Ansbach Memorandum with a program of reform for Bavaria, whose policies he directed as foreign minister from 1799 to 1817 (at times also as minister of finance and of the interior). Grounded in secularization and mediatization, Montgelas's policies (reforms of administration, society, econ…

Oldenbarnevelt, Johan van

(326 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Sep 25, 1547, Amersfoort – May 13, 1619, The Hague), Netherlands politician. In 1585 he supported the appointment of Maurits of Orange as governor of Holland and Zeeland. From 1586 he was a council official of the province of Holland. From 1587, he worked with Maurits for the consolidation of the republic of the United Netherlands, and in 1609 negotiated the 12-year truce with Spain. Oldenbarnevelt took the side of the Arminians and the Remonstration of 1610, and in foreign polic…

Niebuhr

(194 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Niebuhr, Barthold Georg (27.8.1776 Kopenhagen – 2.1.1831 Bonn), Historiker, 1804 Direktor der dänischen Staatsbank und 1806 der »Preußischen Seehandlung«, hielt 1810 in Berlin Vorlesungen über röm. Gesch. und war von 1816–1823 preußischer Gesandter beim Hl. Stuhl (Neuordnung der kath. Diöz. in Preußen 1821). Seine Bedeutung hing an seiner »Röm. Gesch.«, die bis 241 v.Chr. reicht und sich durch rigorose Quellenkritik auszeichnet (v.a. Kritik an Livius). Auf N. geht die Sammlung des CIG zurück. Harm Klueting Bibliography Vf. u.a.: Röm. Gesch., Bd.1 und…
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