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Rijswijker Klausel

(290 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Rijswijker Klausel, Bez. der Regelung des Art.4 des Friedensvertrages von Rijswijk (bei Den Haag), mit dem am 29.9./30.10.1697 der Pfälzische Krieg (seit 1688) endete. Der Frieden zwang Ludwig XIV., alle seit 1679 erlangten Réunionsgebiete zu restituieren und die seit 1688 militärisch besetzte Kurpfalz (nicht das 1681 annektierte Straßburg) zurückzugeben. Art.4 garantierte, entgegen der Normaljahrsregelung (annus normalis) des Westfälischen Friedens, den kath. Konfessionsstand in…

Richelieu

(598 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Richelieu, Jean Armand Du Plessis Duc de (9.9.1585 Paris – 4.12.1642 ebd.), franz. Staatsmann und Kardinal (1622), wurde 1607 Dr. theol. der Sorbonne, 1608 mit päpstl. Dispens wegen fehlenden kanonischen Alters Bf. von Luçon und nahm als solcher an der Generalständeversammlung von 1614 teil, in deren Schlußsitzung er eine Rede hielt und die Politik der Regentin Maria von Medici unterstützte, die ihn 1616 zum Minister im Staatsrat berief. Nach Beginn der Herrschaft Ludwigs XIII. (1617) …

Josephinism

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] The “shimmering and ambiguous term Josephinism” (Klueting, Josephinismus, 1) originated in the early 19th century and refers to Joseph II; the phenomenon existed long before 1780. In scholarship, Josephinism initially referred only to the state's policy toward the church (Winter, Maaß). Following Valjavec, Josephinism is now often understood as a shorthand term for all the reforms in the Austrian monarchy which were instituted in the 1740s, reached their apex after 1780, and which can be…

Napoleon

(706 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Napolione Buonaparte; Aug 15, 1769, Ajaccio, Corsica – May 5, 1821, St. Helena), emperor of the French. Lieutenant of the French artillery since 1785, Napoleon joined the “Montangards” around M. Robespierre in 1793; after the recapture of Toulon in December of 1793, he was promoted to general. After 9 Thermidor (Jul 27, 1794), he was temporarily dismissed from the army. After the defeat of the royalist uprising in Paris (Oct 5, 1795), he was made commander in chief of the Army of…

Schwendi, Lazarus von

(130 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (1522, Mittelbiberach – May 28, 1584, Kirchhofen im Breisgau), imperial diplomat and military commander. After studying at Basel and Straßburg (Strasbourg), he led forces in the Schmalkaldic War, wars with France, and (as commander-in-chief after 1564) in Hungary. In memoranda (esp. 1570 and 1574), he urged improvements in the Empire’s district organization and warfare, with the goal of greater centralization. At the Imperial Diets between 1566 and 1576, he urged public and religious peace, along with religious toleration. Harm Klueting Bibliography Works incl…

Niebuhr, Barthold Georg

(253 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Aug 27, 1776, Copenhagen – Jan 2, 1831, Bonn), historian. He was appointed director of the state bank of Denmark in 1804 and of the “Preußische Seehandlung” (Prussian Maritime Trading Company) in 1806. In 1810 he lectured on Roman history in Berlin. From 1816 to 1823, he served as Prussian ambassador to the Holy See (the reorganization of Catholic dioceses in Prussia in 1821). His significance rests on his Römische Geschichte (ET: Roman History, 1827), which gives an account up to 241 bce, and stands out for its rigorously critical use of sources (esp. its cri…

Retz, Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de

(203 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (baptized Sep 20, 1613, Montmirail, Département Marne – Aug 24, 1679, Paris). After studying theology, he was appointed coadjutor of Paris 1644; in 1652 he was made a cardinal, in 1654 archbishop of Paris, and in 1662 abbot of St. Denis. A political opponent of J. Mazarin and Louis XIV, he organized the uprising of the Fronde (1648–1653). He was arrested in 1652 but was appointed archbishop while still in prison. He was forced to resign his office (not recognized by Pope Innocent …

Mazarin (Mazzarini), Jules

(478 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Giulio Raimondi; Jul 14, 1602, Pescina, Abruzzi – Mar 9, 1661, Vincennes, near Paris), cardinal and French prime minister. He studied at the Jesuit College in Rome (Jesuits), received the Dr.iur.utr., and was captain of a papal regiment. In 1631, in the Mantuan War of Succession, he negotiated the treaties of Cherasco, which brought France Pignerolo as a gateway into northern Italy and brought Mazarin the protection of Richelieu. From 1634 to 1636, Mazarin was nuncio in Paris and…

Frederick the Great

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1712, Berlin – Aug 17, 1786, Sanssouci near Potsdam), king in (from 1772: of) Prussia. Following a strict religious upbringing, the son of Frederick William I soon turned to a religion of reason, which led to clashes with his father in 1726. The conflict escalated when the crown prince tried to escape in 1730, whereupon he was held under arrest in Küstrin. The price of the reconciliation with his father was Frederick's marriage to Elisabeth Christine v. Braunschweig-Bever…

Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques

(86 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (May 10, 1727, Paris – Mar 20, 1781, Paris), French economic theorist influenced by physiocracy. Appointed comptroller-general of finance in 1774, he sought to avert French national bankruptcy through economies and tax reforms. His reform edicts turned the privileged classes against him and he was dismissed on May 10, 1776. Harm Klueting Bibliography E. Brian, La mesure de l’etat, 1994 M. Hill, Statesman of Enlightenment, 1999 J.-P. Poirier, Turgot. Laissez-faire et progrès social, 1999 B. Plé, BBKL XVIII, 2001, 1402–1436.

Riegger, Paul Joseph von

(221 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1705, Freiburg im Breisgau – Dec 2, 1775, Vienna), canonist. After studying in Leiden and elsewhere, and gaining his Dr.iur.utr. in Freiburg, Riegger served from 1733 to 1749 as professor of natural and imperial law in Innsbruck, was in 1749 at the Savoy Ritterakademie in Vienna, and from 1753 to 1773 professor of canon law at Vienna University. Riegger was ennobled in 1764. Through theoretical separation of church and state, and demarcation of their areas of responsibili…

Lipsius, Justus

(214 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Joest Lips; Oct 18, 1547, Overijse, near Brussels – Mar 23, 1606, Louvain), late Humanist and Latin philologist. Lipsius was professor at Jena from 1572 to 1574, moved to Louvain in 1576, to Leiden in 1578, and back to Louvain in 1592. He changed his religious allegiance frequently. His rediscovery of the Stoics and the spread of neo-Stoicism, e.g. in Brandenburg-Prussia, were of immense importance. Harm Klueting Bibliography Works include: De Constantia, 1584 (Lat.-Ger., 1998) On Lipsius: G. Oestreich, Geist und Gestalt des frühmodernen Staates, 1969 G. Abel, Stoiz…

Rijswijk Clause

(360 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] name given to the stipulation in art. 4 of the Treaty of Rijswijk (Rijswick, near The Hague, the Netherlands), by which Louis XIV’s war with the Great Alliance ended on Sep 29/Oct 30, 1697, having begun in 1688. The Treaty forced Louis XIV to restore all the “reunion” territories obtained since 1679, and to give back the Palatinate, militarily occupied since 1688 (but not Strasbourg, annexed in 1681). Diverging from the “norm year” (Annus normalis; 1624) otherwise applied in the Peace of Westphalia, art. 4 guaranteed the Catholic confessional status ¶ of the restored re…

Simultaneum

(627 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] In the broader sense (1), a simultaneum is the coexistence of two or more denominations in one territory, in parity or under constraint for one party. In a narrower sense (2), it involves the shared use of church facilities, especially church buildings, by members of two or more denominations. An example of (1) is the coexistence of Reformed, Lutherans, and Catholics in the Electoral Palatinate and the restored occupied territories under the Rijswijk Clause (1697). Prior to 1679/1…

Confessionalization

(931 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] I. Research Paradigm – II. Recent Developments – III. 19th Century I. Research Paradigm Confessionalization is the forming of state, society, and culture as a result of the formation of a denomination in the sense of the construction of a dogmatic system of doctrine. Confessionalization is seen in association with the early-modern state and social discipline, the backgrounds of which are sought in church discipline. The starting point was the Reformation (Schilling, Konfessionskonflikt; Reformierte Konfessionalisierung). After criticism of the term …

Werkmeister, Leonhard (von)

(453 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (ennobled in 1808; monastic name Benedikt Maria; Oct 22, 1745, Füssen – Jul 16, 1823, Stuttgart). In 1764/1765 Werkmeister entered the Benedictine abbey of Neresheim; he studied in Benediktbeuern and was ordained to the priesthood in 1769. In 1770 he became novice master. From 1772 to 1774 and 1778 to 1780, he taught philosophy in Freising; in 1780 he became head of studies in Neresheim. In 1784 he was appointed court chaplain by the Catholic duke Karl Eugen of Württemberg. In 179…

Isenbiehl, Johann Lorenz

(187 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Dec 20, 1744, Heiligenstadt, Eichsfeld – Dec 26, 1818, Oestrich, Rheingau), was a Catholic theologian, from 1773 professor of exegesis in Mainz. He sparked off the Isenbiehl Controversy in 1774 with theses in which he disputed the messianic character of Isa 7:14 in relation to Matt 1:22 (culminating in Neuer Versuch über die Weissagung des Emmanuel [1777]). During the controversy, theological pamphlets for and against Isenbiehl were exchanged. Suspended in 1774 and once again in 1777, then imprisoned in a monastery, with support from…

Marnix, Philipp

(465 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Filips), Heer van Sint-Aldegonde (1540, Brussels – Dec 15, 1598, Leiden), Flemish politician and academic, of a Savoyard family, who came to the Netherlands with the regent Margaret of Austria; he combined political Calvinism, theological polemic, and patriotic poetry. Marnix studied at Leuven, Paris, Dôle, Padua, and finally Geneva, whence he returned to the Netherlands in 1561 as a Calvinist. After the iconoclastic riots of 1566, in exile in eastern Friesland he wrote an apologia for the uprising (1567) and several polemical works, including De Bijenkorf der H…

L'Hospital, Michel de

(384 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (L'Hôpital; 1507, Aigueperse, Puy-de-Dôme – Mar 13, 1573, Bellébat near Paris) was a French statesman who had studied in Toulouse and Padua, and a jurist educated in theology and the humanities. From 1537, he was a member of the “Parlement” in Paris, and in 1547 he participated in the Council of Trent. After holding high state offices, in 1560 he became chancellor to the queen mother Catharine de Medici (1519–1589), who was regent during the minority of Charles IX (reigned from 15…

Retz

(146 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Retz, Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de (getauft 20.9.1613 Montmirail, Département Marne – 24.8.1679 Paris), nach Theologiestudium 1644 Koadjutor, 1652 Kardinal, 1654 Erzbf. von Paris, 1662 Abt von St. Denis. R. war polit. Gegner J. Mazarins und Ludwigs XIV. Er organisierte den Aufstand der Fronde 1648–1653, wurde 1652 verhaftet, konnte aus der Haft heraus den Erzbischofsstuhl von Paris erlangen, wurde zur Demission gezwungen (von Papst Innozenz X. nicht anerkannt), konnte 1654 fliehen …
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