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(716 words)

Author(s): Knappert, J.
, the former Stanleyville, is a city now of well over 250,000 inhabitants, the third city in Zaire, and the capital of the province of Upper Zaire, formerly Province Orientale. The most important urban centre in north-eastern Zaire, it is situated on the bend of the river Zaire, formerly called Lualaba (upstream) and Congo (downstream from the city), just where it turns west and a few miles north of the equator. In 1877, Henry Morton Stanley set up camp here to rest from the exhausting weeks during which he negotiated the seven cataracts still called Stanley Falls.…


(24,795 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Vial, Ch. | Flemming, B. | İz, Fahīr | Elwell-Sutton, L.P. | Et al.
(a.), pl. ḳiṣaṣ , the term which, after a long evolution, is now generally employed in Arabic for the novel, whilst its diminutive uḳṣūṣa , pl. aḳāṣīṣ , has sometimes been adopted, notably by Maḥmūd Taymūr [ q.v.] as the equivalent of “novella, short story”, before being ineptly replaced by a calque from the English “short story”, ḳiṣṣa ḳaṣīra . The sections of the following article are largely devoted to these literary genres as they are cultivated in the various Islamic literatures, even if the word ḳiṣṣa is not itself used by them. Although some Berber tongues use the Arabic term ( Iḳiṣṣt


(14,502 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R. | Wickens, G.M. | Boratav, P.N. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
(a., pl. amt̲h̲āl ) proverb, popular saying, derives—similarly to Aram, mat̲h̲lā , Hebr. mās̲h̲āl and Ethiop. mesl , mesālē —from the common Semitic root for “sameness, equality, likeness, equivalent” (cf. Akkad. mas̲h̲ālum “equality”, mis̲h̲lum “half”). In Arabic, to create a proverb is fa-arsala( t) , or d̲j̲aʿala ( t) hu mat̲h̲al an, fa-ḍaraba ( t) bihi ’l-mat̲h̲al a; to become proverbial is ḍuriba bihi ’l-mat̲h̲alu , mat̲h̲al un yuḍrabu fa-d̲h̲ahaba ( t), or d̲j̲arā / d̲j̲arat mat̲h̲al an, or, simply, fa-ṣāra mat̲h̲al an. 1. In Arabic i. Definition ii. Arabic proverbs (1) Earlie…


(12,364 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Hanaway, W. L. | Flemming, B. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
or mart̲h̲āt (A., pl. marāt̲h̲ī ) “elegy”, a poem composed in Arabic (or in an Islamic language following the Arabic tradition) to lament the passing of a beloved person and to celebrate his ¶ merits; rit̲h̲āʾ , from the same root, denotes both lamentation and the corresponding literary genre. 1. In Arabic literature. The origin of the mart̲h̲iya may be found in the rhymed and rhythmic laments going with the ritual movements performed as a ritual around the funeral cortège by female relatives of the deceased, before this role bec…


(10,105 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J. | Layish, A. | Shaham, R. | Ansari, Ghaus | Otto, J.M. | Et al.
(a.), marriage (properly, sexual intercourse, but already in the Ḳurʾān used exclusively of the contract of marriage). In the present article, marriage is dealt with as a legal institution; for marriage customs, see ʿurs . I. In Classical Islamic Law 1. The essential features of the Muslim law of marriage go back to the customary law of the Arabs which previously existed. In this, although there were differences according to districts and the conditions of the individual cases, the regulations governing marriage were based upon the pa…

Mawlid (a.), or Mawlūd

(3,412 words)

Author(s): Fuchs, H. | Jong, F. de | Knappert, J.
(pl. mawālid ), is the term for (1) the time, place or celebration of the birth of a person, especially that of the Prophet Muḥammad or of a saint [see walī ], and (2) a panegyric poem in honour of the Prophet. 1. Typology of the mawlid and its diffusion through the Islamic world. From the moment when Islam began to bring the personality of Muḥammad within the sphere of the supernatural, the scenes among which his earthly life had been passed naturally began to assume a higher sanctity in the eyes of his followers. Among these, the house in which he was born, the Mawlid al-Nabī


(9,119 words)

Author(s): Schrieke, B. | Horovitz, J. | Bencheikh, J.E. | Knappert, J. | Robinson, B.W.
(a.), originally designates “a ladder”, and then “an ascent”, and in particular, the Prophet’s ascension to Heaven. 1. In Islamic exegesis and in the popular and mystical tradition of the Arab world. The Ḳurʾān (LXXXI, 19-25, LIII, 1-21) describes a vision in which a divine messenger appears to Muḥammad, and LIII, 12-18, treats of a second mission of a similar kind. In both cases, the Prophet sees a heavenly figure approach him from the distance, but there is no suggestion that he himself was carried away to Heaven. However, i…


(989 words)

Author(s): Knappert, J.
, the epic genre in Islamic literature. vi. In Swahili Literature . In Swahili literature, the word hamasa occurs rarely and has the meaning of “virtue, courage, energy”. The normal words for “courage, valour” in Swahili literature are ushujaa , ujasiri , usabiti and uhodari , all words of Arabic version, and so is the word for virtue, fadhila . There are only a few non-narrative heroic poems known in Swahili literature, most of them self-praises in true African fashion. The most famous of these is the Ukawafi of Liongo, praising h…


(501 words)

Author(s): Knappert, J.
2. In Swahili literature. The word nādira is not well known in Swahili except in scholarly circles. The Swahili word ngano (common also in other Bantu languages) is in use for all invented tales including fables, as opposed to hadithi , which originally referred to Islamic legends about the Prophet Muḥammad and the characters he used to discuss with the Ṣaḥāba , while seated in the mosque at Medina after prayers. Today, such hadithi contain some of the most fantastic adventure tales, including the exploits of ʿAlī against the d̲j̲inn and s̲h̲ayāṭīn . Next to Arabi…


(186 words)

Author(s): Knappert, J.
(a.), in Swahili musahibu , a term of East African Muslim court life. In Swahili morphology, the mu-/ m-prefix can be placed before all words denoting persons and also trees, e.g. mtini “fig tree” (A. tīn ) or mzeituni “olive tree” (A. zaytūn ). It is therefore possible that the literary word musahibu is simply ṣāḥib with the mu-prefix. Now in some of the Swahili chronicles and the older epics, musahibu occurs in a special meaning, that of the close companion of the sultan, e.g. the sultan of Pate [ q.v.]. He is usually a half-brother or cousin. He has to accompany the ruler wherever…

Madīḥ, Madḥ

(10,231 words)

Author(s): Wickens, G.M. | Clinton, J.W. | Stewart Robinson, J. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
(a.), the normal technical terms in Arabic and other Islamic literatures for the genre of panegyric poetry, the individual poem being usually referred to as umdūḥa (pl. amādīḥ ) or madīḥa (pl. madāʾiḥ ). The author himself is called mādiḥ or, as considered professionally, maddāḥ . The root itself is sometimes used without technical connotations, as also are commonly the various other roots signifying "praise": ḥ-m-d, m-d̲j̲-d, ḳ-r-ẓ, t̲h̲-n-y, ṭ-r-w/y, etc. 1. In Arabic literature. As both an independent unit and a component of the ḳaṣīda [ q.v.], the genre has been so widespread …


(9,196 words)

Author(s): Kunitzsch, P. | Knappert, J.
(a.), the stars. There are two words in Arabic carrying the notion of “star”, nad̲j̲m , pl. nud̲j̲ūm (from the root n-d̲j̲-m , “to rise”), and kawkab , pl. kawākib (see WKAS, i, 440 b 28; cf. already Babyl. kakkabu; a reduplication of a basic root KB “to burn, to shine”). For the etymologies of the two words, see Eilers [1], 96 ff.; [2], 115; [3], 6 f. Both words occur frequently in the Ḳurʾān. In LV, 6, it remains in dispute whether al-nad̲j̲m u is to be understood as “the plants, or grasses” (as maintained by I.Y. Kračkovskiy and A. Fischer) or as “the stars” (see the recent …


(960 words)

Author(s): Knappert,J
VI. — Littérature en swahili. Dans la littérature en swahili, le mot hamasa, que l’on rencontre d’ailleurs rarement, a le sens de « vertu, courage, énergie »; les termes désignant normalement le courage, la vaillance, sont ushujaa, ujasiri, us̭abiṱi et uhodari, tous d’origine arabe; il en est de même de celui qui désigne la vertu: fadhila. Il n’y a que quelques poèmes héroïques non narratifs, et la plupart d’entre eux sont une glorification personnelle à la mode africaine. Le plus célèbre est l’ Ukawafi de Liongo, poème de jactance et en même temps hymne à la liberté: «Je suis un jeune ¶ aigle.…


(14,333 words)

Author(s): Sellheim, R. | Wickens, G.M. | Boratav, P.N. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
(a., pl. amt̲h̲āl), proverbe, dicton populaire dérivé — de même que l’aram. mat̲h̲lā, l’hébreu mās̲h̲āl et l’éthiopien mesl, mesālē — de la racine du sémitique commun signifiant «similitude, égalité, ressemblance, équivalence» (cf. accad. mas̲h̲ālum «égalité», mis̲h̲lum «moitié»). «Créer un proverbe» se dit: fa-arsala(t)hā, ou d̲j̲aʿala(t)hu mat̲h̲alan, faḍaraba(t) bihi l-mat̲h̲ala et «devenir proverbial»: ḍuriba bihilbihā l-mat̲h̲alu, mat̲h̲alun yuḍrabu, fa-d̲h̲ahaba(t) ou d̲j̲arā/ d̲j̲arat mat̲h̲alan ou simplement fa-ṣāra mat̲h̲alan. I. En Arabe. I. Définition II…


(9,041 words)

Author(s): Kunitzsch, P. | Knappert, J.
, (a.) les étoiles. Il y a en arabe deux termes pour désigner les étoiles: nad̲j̲m, pl. nud̲j̲ūm, du radical n.d̲j̲.m. «se lever», et kawkab, pl. kawākib (voir WKAS, I, 440 b 28; cf. déjà babyl. kakkabu, redoublement d’une racine KB «brûler, briller»). Sur l’étymologie des deux termes, voir Eilers [1], 96 sqq.; [2], 115; [3], 6 sq. Tous deux figurent fréquemment dans le Ḳurʾān. En LV, 6, on discute pour savoir si al-nad̲j̲mu doit être compris comme signifiant «les plantes ou les herbes» (comme le soutiennent I. Y. Kračkovskiy et A. Fischer) ou «les étoiles» (voir la …


(12,439 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Hanaway, W.L. | Flemming, B. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
ou mart̲h̲āt (A., pl. marāt̲h̲ī) «thrène», poème composé en arabe (ou dans une langue islamique suivant la tradition arabe) pour déplorer la disparition d’un être cher et glorifier ses mérites; rit̲h̲ā ʾ, de la même racine, désigne à la fois la déploration et le genre littéraire correspondant. I. — Littérature arabe. On peut voir l’origine de la mart̲h̲iya dans les lamentations rythmées et rimées accompagnant les gestes rituels qu’accomplissaient autour du brancard funèbre des femmes proches du défunt, avant que ce rôle fût dévolu à des pleureuses pro…


(10,628 words)

Author(s): Schacht, J. | Layish, A. | Shaham, R. | Ansari, Ghaus | Otto, J.M. | Et al.
(a.), mariage (proprement: relation sexuelle, mais déjà dans le ḳurʾān employé exclusivement dans le sens de contrat de mariage). Dans le présent article, le mariage sera étudié du point de vue juridique. Sur les cérémonies qui l’accompagnent, voir ʿUrs. I. dans l’islam classique II. dans le monde islamique moderne 1. Les pays arabe, persans et turcs du Proche Orient 2. Dans l’Inde musulmane jusqu’en 1930 [voir ʿUrs] 3. Dans l’Inde musulmane après 1930 4. En Indonésie 5. En Afrique orientale 6. Au Nigéria I. Dans l’islam classique. 1. Les traits essentiels du droit matrimonial isl…


(523 words)

Author(s): Knappert, J.
2. Dans la littérature Swahili. Le mot nādira n’est pas bien connu en swahili, sauf dans les cercles savants. Le mot swahili ngano (commun aussi dans les langues bantoues) est employé pour désigner toutes les histoires inventées, y compris les fables. Le mot hadithi, par contre, renvoyait originellement aux légendes islamiques sur le prophète Muḥammad et les Ṣaḥāba, personnages avec qui, assis dans la mosquée de Médine après les prières, il avait l’habitude de discuter. A présent, ces hadithi contiennent des histoires d’aventures des plus fantastiques, y compris les hauts…


(24,279 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Vial, Ch. | Flemming, B. | İz, Fahir | Elwell-Sutton, L.P. | Et al.
(a.), pl. ḳiṣaṣ, est le terme qui, après une longue évolution, est généralement employé, de nos jours, pour désigner en arabe un roman, tandis que son diminutif, uḳṣūṣa, pl. aḳāṣīṣ, a été adopté quelque temps, notamment par Maḥmūd Taymūr [ q.v.], comme équivalent de «nouvelle», avant d’être malencontreusement remplacé par un calque de l’anglais, ḳiṣṣa ḳaṣīra (short story). C’est à ces genres littéraires tels qu’il sont cultivés dans diverses littératures que seront en grande partie consacrées les sections du présent article, même si le mot ḳiṣṣa lui-même n’est pas usité. Malgré …


(8,968 words)

Author(s): Schrieke, B. | Horovitz, J. | Bencheikh, J. E. | Knappert, J. | Robinson, B. W.
(a.) désigne à l’origine une échelle, puis une «montée» et particulièrement l’ascension du Prophète. 1. — Dans l’exégèse islamique et la tradition mystique du monde arabe. Le Ḳurʾān (LXXXI, 19-25 et LUI, 1-12) décrit une vision dans laquelle un messager divin apparaît à Muḥammad (LIII, 12-18) et parle d’une seconde mission du même genre; dans les deux cas, le Prophète voit une apparition céleste arriver de loin vers lui, mais rien n’indique que lui-même ait été enlevé au ciel. Tout autre est l’aventure à laquelle fait al…
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