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Ophir

(209 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] is a semilegendary land of gold, reachable by ship from Elath (1 Kgs 9:28; 10:11; 22:49). According to Gen 10:29 (post-P), which makes Ophir a “son of Joktan” and a “brother of Havilah” (Hā’il or the Nufũd desert?), it was probably on the western coast of Arabia; the alternative Punt (Somalia) is based on the catalogue of trade goods in 1 Kgs 10:22, including ivory and apes, but Ophir may also have been a transfer station for the transport of Somali goods. In the mid-10th century bce, gold was mined in the vicinity of Medina. The gold of Ophir was proverbial (Isa 1…

Frankincense Road

(337 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] Frankincense Road, a caravan route from the incense producing region in southeast Arabia (Ḥaḍramaut, Oman) through western Arabia to Gaza (Pliny the Elder, Naturalis historia, VII 64). As a luxury item that combines limited volume with high value, frankincense was a typical international article of merchandise in antiquity. In turn, the flow of capital and technical expertise from the Fertile Crescent to Arabia resulted in secondary formations of tribes and states (formative phase of the Sabaean Kingdom [Sabaeans] c. 750–675 bce) and, in northern Arabia, in t…

Milestone

(199 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] Roman roads were provided with milestones every 1,000 double paces (Lat. milia passuum, hence “mile”), which not only served as landmarks but might also include the name and position of the person responsible for building it, its date of construction, and the distance to the destination. Multiple renovations resulted in groups of milestones. Alongside ancient maps, these milestones provide evidence for the existence and routes of Roman roads; they are a primary source for the administrative and economic history of ¶ the Roman provinces, their trade and traffic…

Bozrah (Edom)

(166 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] According to Amos 1:12; Jer 49:13, 22; Isa 34:6; 63:1, Bozrah was the capital of Edom (Gen 36:33 refers to the Bozrah in Syria), and can be identified with the Buṣērā in southern Jordan (Palestine grid 2077.0170). According to the excavational discoveries of C.-M. Bennett Bosrah was founded at the end of the 8th century or start of the 7th century bce under the influence of Assyrian culture. The city came to its end in the Persian era after the neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus conquered i…

Fortresses

(351 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] The refuges of tribal societies were often, as in Edom, natural, inaccessible rock formations such as Sela/as-Silʿ; even 11th- and 10th-century sites known as “fortresses” in the Negev actually represent fortified farmsteads of a local population that was not yet fully sedentary. Apart from such structures, military architecture associated with a centralized state could serve both defensive (final line of resistance against invaders) and offensive purposes (operational and reinforcement bases for an army in the field). Mature cities as such were ¶ often fortifi…

Kenites

(243 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] A tribe of the 11th and 10th centuries bce that later assimilated into the tribe of Judah (Tribes of Israel). The area in which it settled (Judg 1:16f.; 1 Sam 30:29) and which it patrolled (1 Sam 27:10) lay south of the Judean hills. A Kenite clan is also attested in the plain of Jezreel during the same period (Judg 5:24; 4:11, 17). The name is derived more convincingly from “smith” in Aramaic (see Gen 4:22) than from “spear” in Hebrew. The geographical disparity of these references eithe…

Tribes of Israel

(1,391 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] Biblical Israel (II, 1) is theoretically divided into 12 tribes (cf. also Rev 7:4–8). The oldest enumerations mention fewer tribes (2 Sam 2:9 [four]; Judg 5 [ten]) but include “non-canonical” tribal names instead (Machir, Gilead). Biblical Israel (II, 1) is theoretically divided into 12 tribes (cf. also Rev 7:4–8). The oldest enumerations mention fewer tribes (2 Sam 2:9 [four]; Judg 5 [ten]) but include “non-canonical” tribal names instead (Machir, Gilead). I. Tribe and State Tribes are political amalgamations of clans, which in turn represent territori…

Mamre

(369 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] (מַמְרֵא, genuine place name meaning something like “fat pasture”) stood in the middle of the hill country of Judah, about 3 km north of Hebron (Arab. name [until 15th cent. ce], Rāmat or Bēt al-Ḫalîl, “High Place/House of the Friend [of God]”). According to ancient tradition in Gen 18* a divine triad (from Hebron?) appeared here to the tent-dwelling peasant Abraham. When in the 6th century bce Abraham was made the mythic origin of the population of Judah, Mamre stood on the frontier between Judah and Idumaea (from 597/586 bce; Gen 13:18*; 16*). In the late 6th or ear…

Tyrus

(244 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] (in Phönizien). Hebr. צוֹר/Ṣôr, phön./akkad. Ṣurru, »Felsen«, heute Ṣūr; Insel-Stadt vor der Küste Libanons, maximale Ausdehnung 50–60 ha (12–15 000 Einwohner, 332 v.Chr. durch Flüchtlinge ca.50 000) mit einer Ufersiedlung, Usu/Palaityros. Seit der 2. Hälfte des 3.Jt. v.Chr. (also dem kolonialen Ausgreifen Ägyptens in den Libanon; vgl. Hdt. II 44) besiedelt, im ganzen 2.Jt. v.Chr. als äg. Interessengebiet und Untertanenland erwähnt. Damals im Schatten Gubals (Byblos), teilte T. s…

Timna

(112 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] (hebr. תִּמְנָע; Wādī ‘Araba), hebr. Name (nach der Mutter Amaleks, Gen 36,12.23.40) für das Kupferminengebiet von el-Meneʿiyye in der südöstlichen ‘Araba (äg. ʿAtika), in das Ägypten im 13./12. und in der 2. Hälfte des 10.Jh. v.Chr. Bergbauexpeditionen entsandte, die mit Hilfe nordwestarab. und südpaläst. Spezialisten Kupfererz abbauten und an Ort und Stelle verhütteten, wohl auch Kupfer aus dem nordöstlich gelegenen, weit reicheren Vorkommen von Punon/Fēnān einhandelten. Ein äg. …

Siloah-Inschrift

(265 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] Siloah-Inschrift, eine i.J. 1880 im Siloah-Tunnel (auch Hiskiatunnel genannt) entdeckte judäische Inschrift, die dessen Bau beschreibt, der die Gihon-Quelle (östlich des Sporns der sog. Davidstadt; Jerusalem [: VIII., 2.]; s. dort Karten zum Verlauf) mit dem Siloah-Teich südwestlich desselben verbindet (jetzt im Antikenmuseum Istanbul). Gegen die übliche Verbindung mit den Verteidigungsmaßnahmen Hiskias 701 v.Chr. (vgl.2Kön 20,20) erheben sich wasserbautechnische, stadtplanerisch…

Ophra

(132 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] (in Manasse), Heimat- und Residenzort des abiesritischen Häuptlings Gideon (Ri 6,11), an dem er aus der Midianiterbeute ein Heiligtum stiftet (Ri 8,27 – entgegen 8,22f. ein herrschaftlicher Akt). Seine Identifikation innerhalb des Territoriums des (seit dem 10./9.Jh. v.Chr. manassitischen) Klans Abiezer (durch die Samaria-Ostraka [Samaria] gut umschrieben) hängt davon ab, wie man das Verhältnis des Klans zur Stadt Sichem bestimmt: möglichst nahe (Donner: Tell Ṣōfar) oder möglichst entfernt (Knauf: Ḡinṣāfūṭ Gan-[ha]S̄opeṭ). Ernst Axel Knauf Bibl…

Penuel

(264 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] , hebr. פְּנוּאֵל, »Antlitz Els« (wohl nach einer Geländeformation); Ort im nördlichen Ostjordanland, nach Gen 32,22–32 an einer Jabbok-Furt, nach Ri 8,5–11 zw. Sukkot (Tell Dēr ʿAllā) und Jogbeha (Gˇubēḥa) und nach Ri 8,16 von Gideon teilweise zerstört (sekundärer Nachtrag zur Sukkot-Episode), im letzten Drittel des 10.Jh. v.Chr. von Schoschenk (Schischak) erobert (oder tributpflichtig gemacht) unter dem Namen »Neu-Pnuel« (pnwʾl ḥdsˇt; Karnak-Liste [Hughes, Pl. 2–9] Nr. 53f., u…

Ophra

(168 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] (in Benjamin), עָפְרָה (vgl. zur Namensdeutung ‘āpār, »Staub«, oder eher ‘oper, »Junghirsch, Gazellenkitz«), in der Ortsliste Benjamins Jos 18,23 aufgeführt. Doch liegt O. jenseits der benjaminitischen Nordgrenze (Jos 18,12f.) und ist in die Ortsliste wahrscheinlich aus 2Chr 13,19 (‘eprōn) eingedrungen, dessen Identifikation mit eṭ-Ṭayyibe plausibel ist (Eudämonismus wegen des Anklangs des kanaan. Ephron an arab. ʿifrı̄t, »Kobold«) und den Angaben des Hieronymus entspricht (5 …

Stämme Israels

(1,121 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] . Das bibl. Israel (: II.,1.) gliedert sich theoretisch in zwölf S. (vgl. auch Apk 7,4–8). Älteste Aufzählungen nennen weniger S. (2Sam 2,9 vier, Ri 5 zehn), enthalten dafür »unkanonische« Stämmenamen (Machir, Gilead). I.Stamm und Staat. S. sind polit. Zusammenschlüsse von Sippen, die ihrerseits territorial definierte Endogamiegemeinschaften einer ganz oder überwiegend bäuerlichen Bevölkerung darstellen (und siedlungsarchäologisch nachweisbar sind; Lehmann). Herrschaftsform im S. ist das »Häuptlingstum« (hebr.…

Weihrauchstraße

(272 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[English Version] Weihrauchstraße, Karawanenweg vom Weihrauchgewinnungsgebiet in Südostarabien (Ḥadramaut, Oman) durch Westarabien nach Gaza (Plinius d. Ä., Naturalis historia, VII 64). Als Luxusgut, das geringes Volumen mit hohem Wert vereint, ist Weihrauch ein typisches Fernhandelsgut der Antike. Im Gegenzug führte der Zufluß von Kapital und Herrschaftswissen aus dem Fruchtbaren Halbmond nach Arabien zu sekundären Stammes- und Staatenbildungen (formative Phase Sabas [Sabäer] etwa 750–675 v.Chr.…

Cult Sites (in Palestine)

(502 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] In addition to the temple in Palestine and northern Arabia, there were open-air sanctuaries, demarcated sites whose inventory regularly included an asherah , a holy tree, and a massebah, a holy stone, at least since the late Neolithic era. As its Old Testament designation, asherah, indicates, the tree represents the goddess, while the massebah was considered the locus of the presence of the god (thus Beth-El, Bethyl [Bethel]; cf. Gen 28:18–19a). Masseboth/bethyls could be left in their natural state, decorated with reliefs, sculpted geometrica…

Tyre

(340 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel
[German Version] (in Phoenicia); Hebrew רוֹצ/ ṣôr, Phoenician/Akkadian ṣurru, “rock”; modern Ṣūr. Tyre was an island city off the coast of Lebanon with a maximum area of 50 to 60 ha and a population of 12,000–15,000 (swollen to about 50,000 by refugees in 332 bce); it was associated with the mainland settlement of Ushu/Palaityros. Settlement began in the second half of the 3rd millennium bce, with the colonial expansion of Egypt into the Lebanon (Hdt. II 44); it is mentioned throughout the 2nd millennium as a subject territory within the Egyptian sphere of …

Frankincense

(441 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel | Kunzler, Michael
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Liturgy I. Religious Studies The custom of making olfactory sacrifices to the gods as heavenly beings dates from at least the 4th millennium bce (Egypt. śnčr = “to smoke; to perfume,” lit. “to deify”). However, frankincense, of which there is no evidence in the Mediterranean area before the 8th century bce, should be distinguished from all other types of incense. There was a growing demand for frankincense until the first century ce. This subsequently dropped, and in the 4th century collapsed almost completely. Along with this…

Weihrauch

(363 words)

Author(s): Knauf, Ernst Axel | Kunzler, Michael
[English Version] I. Religionsgeschichtlich Der Brauch, den Göttern als Himmelswesen olfaktorische Opfer darzubringen, geht mindestens bis ins 4.Jt. v.Chr. zurück (äg. śnčr=»räuchern«, wörtl. »vergöttlichen«), doch muß man von allem möglichen Räucherwerk (engl. incense) den W. unterscheiden (engl. frankincense), der im Mittelmeerraum nicht vor dem 8.Jh. v.Chr. nachzuweisen ist. Die Nachfrage stieg bis zum 1.Jh. n.Chr. stark an, um danach zurückzugehen und im 4.Jh. n.Chr. fast ganz zusammenzubrechen…
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