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Irenik

(695 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
Der theologische Begriff der I. (»friedliche Haltung/Praxis«, von griech. eirēnikós, »friedlich«), in der Polemik »Synkretismus« genannt, reicht bis zur Wende zum 17. Jh. zurück und bezeichnet eine auf Ausgleich und Frieden bedachte Gesinnung, die um Kooperation der christl. Konfessionen bemüht ist [3]; [4]. Mit ihrem humanistischen Hintergrund, v. a. dem auf Einheit drängenden Kirchenideal des Erasmus von Rotterdam, fand sie im 16. Jh. – zuerst meist bikonfessionell auf Calvinismus und Luthertum orientiert – Unterstützung durch den dt. Reformator Martin Bucer. Sie v…

Ungleich

(138 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[English Version] (Unglerus), Lukas (1526 Hermannstadt – 21.11.1600 Birthälm, Siebenbürgen). Nach dem Studium 1550 in Wittenberg M.A., 1556 Lektor in Hermannstadt, 1561 Teilnahme an einer Gesandtschaft an mehrere dt. Universitäten zur Bestätigung der orth. Abendmahlslehre der siebenbürgischen Lutheraner, 1565 Pfarrer in Kelling, 1567 in Birthälm. U. erhielt bei der von István Báthory angeordneten Wahl eines Superintendenten der Lutheraner am 6.5.1572 die meisten Stimmen. Damit war der beabsichtigte…

Stigel

(152 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[English Version] Stigel, Johann (13.5.1515 Friemar bei Gotha – 11.2.1562 Jena), Schulbesuch in Gotha; 1531 Studium der Fächer Jura, Philol., Astronomie, Medizin und Physik in Wittenberg. Am 20.4.1542 machte S. seinen Magister und wurde am 27.8.1543 Prof. der Artistenfakultät. Es folgte die Berufung nach Jena zum Aufbau der Hohen Schule zus. mit V. Strigel 1548 mit Übernahme einer Professur. S.s Beziehungen zeigen ihn als den Humanistenkreisen um Melanchthon verbunden und als neulat. dichtenden Geg…

Neumark

(182 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[English Version] Neumark, Georg(16.3.1621 Bad Langensalza – 8.7.1681 Weimar). Seit 1624 in Mühlhausen, Thüringen, aufgewachsen, besuchte N. das Gymnasium dieser Stadt sowie das von Schleusingen (1632) und Gotha (1641) und vielleicht die Lateinschule zu Osterode im Harz (seit 1636). Aufenthalte u.a. in Magdeburg, Lüneburg, Hamburg (1641/42) und Kiel (1642/44) gehörten seinen Reisejahren an. 1648/49 studierte er in Königsberg. Die Zeit in Thorn (1649/51), Danzig (1651) und Hamburg (1651/52) war mit …

Rosinus

(152 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[English Version] Rosinus, Bartholomäus (um 1520 Pößneck, Thüringen – 17.12.1585 Regensburg), 1536 Studium in Wittenberg, 1544 M.A., Lehrer in Gotha, 1544 Rektor, 1551 Diakon in Eisenach. 1559 wurde R. Superintendent in Weimar, 1562/1567 erfolgte seine Entlassung und Wiedereinsetzung im Zuge der religionspolit. Kurswechsel im ernestinischen Thüringen. 1563 war er schönburg-waldenburgischer Superintendent in Glauchau, 1567 Mitverfasser und Unterzeichner der gnesioluth. reußisch-schönburgischen Konfe…

Irenicism

(723 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
The theological term irenicism (“peaceful attitude/behavior,” from Greek  eirenikós, “peaceful”), called “syncretism” by its opponents, goes back to the end of the 17th century and denotes a stance oriented toward balance and peace and aimed at bringing about cooperation among the Christian denominations [3]; [4].The background for this movement was Humanist; Erasmus of Rotterdam, especially, idealized unity within the Church. In the 16th century, it received early support from the German reformer Martin Bucer, initially focused on th…
Date: 2019-03-20

Peucer, Kaspar

(214 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jan 6, 1525, Bautzen – Sep 25, 1602, Dessau). From 1540 to 1548, Peucer studied in Wittenberg and Frankfurt an der Oder; he gained his M.A. in Wittenberg in 1545. From 1548 he taught mathematics, and in 1554 became professor of mathematics. He lived in the house of the Wittenberg scholar, Melanchthon, from 1540, and was his son-in-law from 1550; he was a close and trusted friend. He edited and continued Melanchthon’s Chronicon Carionis, and a collection of his works and letters. In 1560 he became a doctor of medicine, and in 1566 was raised to the imp…

Neumark, Georg

(212 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 16, 1621, Bad Langensalza – Jul 8, 1681, Weimar). After 1624 Neumark grew up in Mühlhausen, Thuringia, where he attended the Gymnasium. ¶ He also studied at the Gymnasiums of Schleusingen (1632) and Gotha (1641), and possibly the Latin school in Osterode am Harz (from 1636). Several years of travel included stays in Magdeburg, Lüneburg, Hamburg (1641/1642), and Kiel (1642/1644). In 1648/1649 he studied in Königsberg (today Kaliningrad). Years spent in Thorn (today Torun; 1649/1651), Danzig (today Gd…

Stigel, Johann

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (May 13, 1515, Fiemar, near Gotha – Feb 11, 1562, Jena). After attending school in Gotha, Stigel went to Wittenberg in 1531 to study law, philology, astronomy, medicine, and physics. He received his master’s degree on Apr 20, 1542; on Aug 27, 1543, he was appointed to a professorship in the faculty of arts. In 1548 he was called to Jena to build up the Hohe Schule in cooperation with V. Strigel and was offered a chair. His contacts indicate that he was associated with the circle o…

Baier, Johann Wilhelm, the Elder

(260 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Nov 11, 1647, Nürnberg – Oct 19, 1695, Weimar) began studying philosophy and (Near Eastern) philology at Altdorf in 1664 followed by Jena in 1669. He received his Dr. theol. in 1674 and was appointed professor in 1675. In 1694 he received an appointment at Halle. In 1695 he sat on the consistory and the church council, and was chief court pre…

Starcke, Christoph

(168 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1684, Freienwalde – Dec 12, 1744, Driesen, Neumark [now Drezdenko, Poland]). After attending school in Berlin, began studying at Halle in 1703. From Halle he brought the spirit of Pietism to his future work as an instructor in Berlin (1705), pastor in Nennhausen, Kreis Rathenow (1709), and senior pastor and garrison chaplain in Driesen (1737). In collaboration with others, he produced a Synopsis bibliothecae in Novum Testamentum (1733–1737), an exegetical and homiletical reference work with many tables, which continued in print into the l…

Rosenmüller, Johann Georg

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1736, Ummerstadt bei Hildburghausen, Thuringia – Mar 14, 1815, Leipzig). After attending school in Nuremberg since 1751, Rosenmüller began his university studies in 1757 in Altdorf. After a time as a tutor, he was appointed pastor in Hildburghausen in 1767 and in Heßberg in 1768. In 1772 he was appointed deacon and adjunct superintendent in Königsberg, Franconia. In 1775 he was appointed to a chair at Erlangen, and in 1783 he was appointed professor, superintendent, and c…

Magdeburg, Joachim

(235 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (1525, Gardelegen, Altmark – c. 1587) received his bachelor's degree from Wittenberg in 1546, then served as rector in Schöningen until 1547, when he was appointed pastor in Dannenberg. Having served from 1549 to 1551 in Salzwedel, he resigned voluntarily. He served as deacon in Hamburg (Sankt Petri) from 1552 to 1558; after being removed, he served as pastor in Oßmannstedt (Thuringia), where he was removed in 1562. In 1563 he resided in Eisleben. In 1564 he was appointed pastor i…

Zillertal Emigrants

(183 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] The Zillertal Emigrants were the last population group in modern European history to be banished for religious reasons. The Zillertal, which had been part of Tyrol since 1816, had been spared the expulsion of the Salzburg Emigrants in 1731/1732, but in 1826 there was open resistance to the Roman Catholic Church on the part of lay Christians. When attempts at conversion failed, the 1836 election of a new archbishop of Salzburg led – under legally dubious circumstances – to the use …

Kromayer, Johannes

(159 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Dec 8, 1576, Döbeln – Jul 13, 1643, Weimar) studied in Leipzig, 1597; became pastor in Eisleben in 1598, was awarded an M.A. in 1600, and was appointed court preacher (1613) and general superintendent (1627) in Weimar. In his capacity as inspector of schools, Kromayer introduced a school system based on the didactic methods of the educational reformer W. Ratke and published schoolbooks (esp. Deutsche Grammatica, 1618). In contrast to the reforms aspired to by Ernest the Pious in Gotha (from 1640), Kromayer did not pursue the objective of effec…

Antinomian Controversy

(143 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] The umbrella term,“Antinomian Controversies,” encompasses disputes with a variety of motivations within Wittenbergian theology between 1527 and roughly 1567. They involved the denial of the importance of the law of God for a person's path to salvation (Antinomism) and were associated with the names of J. Agricola (the so-called first Antinomia…

Agricola, Johann

(292 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Schneyder, Sneider, Schnitter) (Apr 20, 1492 or 1494 or 1495, Eisleben – Sep 22, 1566, Berlin). He attended school in Braunschweig, matriculated in Leipzig in 1509, in Wittenberg in 1550; there, he attained his Magister on Feb 11, 1518, and Baccalaureus biblicus on Sep 19, 1519. Close personal relations with Luther in the years from 1516 were…

Judex (Richter), Matthäus

(214 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Sep 21, 1528, Dippoldiswalde – May 16, 1564, Wismar). Judex attended school in Dresden and Magdeburg, began his studies of law and theology in Wittenberg in 1546, received the M.A. in 1549 and in the same year became the co-rector of the Gymnasium in the old city of Magdeburg, in 1554 deacon at St. Ulrich with J. Wigand. In April 1560, he was appointed professor in Jena, and was dismissed on Oct 1, 1561 because of his public criticism of the Lutheran leadership's willingness to c…

Adiaphorist Controversy

(234 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] Adiaphoron ἀδιάφορον, in the context of the Adiaphorist Controversy, indicates the assessment of the requirements laid upon the Protestants after their defeat in the Schmalkaldic War by the Augsburg Interim: the reintroduction of organizational elements from liturgy and church law that had fallen by the wayside or come under …

Tschernembl, Georg Erasmus

(170 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jan 26, 1567, Schloss Schwertberg – Nov 18, 1626, Geneva). After studies in Altdorf and an educational tour of western Europe, he worked in the diplomatic service of the Upper Austrian estates, including stays in Graz and Prague. On the basis of a highly charged theory of a federation of the estates based on Calvinistic theology and hostility to the monarchy ( Consultationes, 1624), he included the Bohemian confederation (president of the Bohemian war council 1619/1620) in his planned federation, which also included the Protestant Union (16…
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