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Irenik

(671 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
Der theologische Begriff der I. (»friedliche Haltung/Praxis«, von griech. eirēnikós, »friedlich«), in der Polemik »Synkretismus« genannt, reicht bis zur Wende zum 17. Jh. zurück und bezeichnet eine auf Ausgleich und Frieden bedachte Gesinnung, die um Kooperation der christl. Konfessionen bemüht ist [3]; [4]. Mit ihrem humanistischen Hintergrund, v. a. dem auf Einheit drängenden Kirchenideal des Erasmus von Rotterdam, fand sie im 16. Jh. – zuerst meist bikonfessionell auf Calvinismus und Luthertum orientiert – Unterstützung durch den dt. Reformator Martin Bucer. Sie ver…
Date: 2019-11-19

Irenicism

(723 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
The theological term irenicism (“peaceful attitude/behavior,” from Greek  eirenikós, “peaceful”), called “syncretism” by its opponents, goes back to the end of the 17th century and denotes a stance oriented toward balance and peace and aimed at bringing about cooperation among the Christian denominations [3]; [4].The background for this movement was Humanist; Erasmus of Rotterdam, especially, idealized unity within the Church. In the 16th century, it received early support from the German reformer Martin Bucer, initially focused on th…
Date: 2019-10-14

Agricola, Johann

(292 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Schneyder, Sneider, Schnitter) (Apr 20, 1492 or 1494 or 1495, Eisleben – Sep 22, 1566, Berlin). He attended school in Braunschweig, matriculated in Leipzig in 1509, in Wittenberg in 1550; there, he attained his Magister on Feb 11, 1518, and Baccalaureus biblicus on Sep 19, 1519. Close personal relations with Luther in the years from 1516 were…

Judex (Richter), Matthäus

(214 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Sep 21, 1528, Dippoldiswalde – May 16, 1564, Wismar). Judex attended school in Dresden and Magdeburg, began his studies of law and theology in Wittenberg in 1546, received the M.A. in 1549 and in the same year became the co-rector of the Gymnasium in the old city of Magdeburg, in 1554 deacon at St. Ulrich with J. Wigand. In April 1560, he was appointed professor in Jena, and was dismissed on Oct 1, 1561 because of his public criticism of the Lutheran leadership's willingness to c…

Adiaphorist Controversy

(234 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] Adiaphoron ἀδιάφορον, in the context of the Adiaphorist Controversy, indicates the assessment of the requirements laid upon the Protestants after their defeat in the Schmalkaldic War by the Augsburg Interim: the reintroduction of organizational elements from liturgy and church law that had fallen by the wayside or come under …

Peucer, Kaspar

(214 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jan 6, 1525, Bautzen – Sep 25, 1602, Dessau). From 1540 to 1548, Peucer studied in Wittenberg and Frankfurt an der Oder; he gained his M.A. in Wittenberg in 1545. From 1548 he taught mathematics, and in 1554 became professor of mathematics. He lived in the house of the Wittenberg scholar, Melanchthon, from 1540, and was his son-in-law from 1550; he was a close and trusted friend. He edited and continued Melanchthon’s Chronicon Carionis, and a collection of his works and letters. In 1560 he became a doctor of medicine, and in 1566 was raised to the imp…

Neumark, Georg

(212 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 16, 1621, Bad Langensalza – Jul 8, 1681, Weimar). After 1624 Neumark grew up in Mühlhausen, Thuringia, where he attended the Gymnasium. ¶ He also studied at the Gymnasiums of Schleusingen (1632) and Gotha (1641), and possibly the Latin school in Osterode am Harz (from 1636). Several years of travel included stays in Magdeburg, Lüneburg, Hamburg (1641/1642), and Kiel (1642/1644). In 1648/1649 he studied in Königsberg (today Kaliningrad). Years spent in Thorn (today Torun; 1649/1651), Danzig (today Gd…

Stigel, Johann

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (May 13, 1515, Fiemar, near Gotha – Feb 11, 1562, Jena). After attending school in Gotha, Stigel went to Wittenberg in 1531 to study law, philology, astronomy, medicine, and physics. He received his master’s degree on Apr 20, 1542; on Aug 27, 1543, he was appointed to a professorship in the faculty of arts. In 1548 he was called to Jena to build up the Hohe Schule in cooperation with V. Strigel and was offered a chair. His contacts indicate that he was associated with the circle o…

Baier, Johann Wilhelm, the Elder

(260 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Nov 11, 1647, Nürnberg – Oct 19, 1695, Weimar) began studying philosophy and (Near Eastern) philology at Altdorf in 1664 followed by Jena in 1669. He received his Dr. theol. in 1674 and was appointed professor in 1675. In 1694 he received an appointment at Halle. In 1695 he sat on the consistory and the church council, and was chief court pre…

Kirchner, Timotheus

(224 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jan 6, 1533, Döllstädt – Sep 14, 1587, Weimar) attended school in Erfurt and Gotha, studied in Wittenberg from 1549, became pastor in Großfurra in 1554, then in Dachwig in 1555. He received his M.A. in Jena in 1560 and was appointed pastor in Hersleben in 1561, but was removed from office in 1563 on the charge of being a Gnesio-Lutheran. Reinstated as pastor in Hersleben in 1568, he received his Dr. theol. in Jena in 1571, became general superintendent and court chaplain in Wolfe…

Sagittarius, Johann Christfried

(187 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Sep 28, 1617, Bres­lau [now Wrocław] – Feb 19, 1689, Altenburg, Thuringia). After the death of his parents in 1623, Saggitarius was brought up in Jena. After attending school in Brunswick (to 1628) and university in Jena (to 1641), in 1641 he was appointed deputy school director in Hof. In 1643 he received his M.A. and became school director in Jena. In 1646 he was appointed professor of history and literature at Jena and in 1650 dean of the philosophical faculty. In 1651 he bega…

Pezel, Christoph

(261 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 5, 1539, Plauen, Vogtland – Feb 24, 1604, Bremen). After attending school in Plauen, Pezel studied in Jena (1555), Leipzig (1563), and Wittenberg (1564), then returned to teach in Plauen. In 1565 he received a fellowship from Electoral Saxony and in 1567 was appointed professor of philosophy at Wittenberg. In 1569 he was made court preacher, and in 1570 he received his doctorate. As a disciple of Melanchthon, Pezel was one of the leading Wittenberg Philippists. In 1574 he was…

Kromayer, Johannes

(159 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Dec 8, 1576, Döbeln – Jul 13, 1643, Weimar) studied in Leipzig, 1597; became pastor in Eisleben in 1598, was awarded an M.A. in 1600, and was appointed court preacher (1613) and general superintendent (1627) in Weimar. In his capacity as inspector of schools, Kromayer introduced a school system based on the didactic methods of the educational reformer W. Ratke and published schoolbooks (esp. Deutsche Grammatica, 1618). In contrast to the reforms aspired to by Ernest the Pious in Gotha (from 1640), Kromayer did not pursue the objective of effec…

Antinomian Controversy

(143 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] The umbrella term,“Antinomian Controversies,” encompasses disputes with a variety of motivations within Wittenbergian theology between 1527 and roughly 1567. They involved the denial of the importance of the law of God for a person's path to salvation (Antinomism) and were associated with the names of J. Agricola (the so-called first Antinomia…

Buddeus, Johann Franz

(297 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Jun 25, 1667, Anklam – Nov 19, 1729, Gotha) studied in Wittenberg from 1685 to 1689, took his master's degree there in 1687, became adjunct to the philosophical faculty, and began teaching in Jena in 1689. After teaching for one year at the Gymnasium in Coburg, he became professor of moral philosophy in 1693, professor of theology at Halle in …

Wibel, Johann Christian

(185 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (May 3, 1711, Ernsbach, Odenwald – May 10, 1772, Langenburg, Württemberg). After being tutored and attending the Gymnasium in Öhringen, he studied at Jena from 1729 to 1732, where also engaged in his earliest researches into church history. In 1732 he served as a locum tenens in Kupferzell and from 1732 to 1746 as deacon and consistorial councilor in Wilhermsdorf. In 1739 he received his M.A. from Erlangen. In 1746 he was appointed deputy rector and clerical adjunct in Öhringen, and in 1749 court chaplain and consistorial co…

Starcke, Christoph

(168 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Mar 21, 1684, Freienwalde – Dec 12, 1744, Driesen, Neumark [now Drezdenko, Poland]). After attending school in Berlin, began studying at Halle in 1703. From Halle he brought the spirit of Pietism to his future work as an instructor in Berlin (1705), pastor in Nennhausen, Kreis Rathenow (1709), and senior pastor and garrison chaplain in Driesen (1737). In collaboration with others, he produced a Synopsis bibliothecae in Novum Testamentum (1733–1737), an exegetical and homiletical reference work with many tables, which continued in print into the l…

Rosenmüller, Johann Georg

(173 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (Dec 18, 1736, Ummerstadt bei Hildburghausen, Thuringia – Mar 14, 1815, Leipzig). After attending school in Nuremberg since 1751, Rosenmüller began his university studies in 1757 in Altdorf. After a time as a tutor, he was appointed pastor in Hildburghausen in 1767 and in Heßberg in 1768. In 1772 he was appointed deacon and adjunct superintendent in Königsberg, Franconia. In 1775 he was appointed to a chair at Erlangen, and in 1783 he was appointed professor, superintendent, and c…

Magdeburg, Joachim

(235 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] (1525, Gardelegen, Altmark – c. 1587) received his bachelor's degree from Wittenberg in 1546, then served as rector in Schöningen until 1547, when he was appointed pastor in Dannenberg. Having served from 1549 to 1551 in Salzwedel, he resigned voluntarily. He served as deacon in Hamburg (Sankt Petri) from 1552 to 1558; after being removed, he served as pastor in Oßmannstedt (Thuringia), where he was removed in 1562. In 1563 he resided in Eisleben. In 1564 he was appointed pastor i…

Zillertal Emigrants

(183 words)

Author(s): Koch, Ernst
[German Version] The Zillertal Emigrants were the last population group in modern European history to be banished for religious reasons. The Zillertal, which had been part of Tyrol since 1816, had been spared the expulsion of the Salzburg Emigrants in 1731/1732, but in 1826 there was open resistance to the Roman Catholic Church on the part of lay Christians. When attempts at conversion failed, the 1836 election of a new archbishop of Salzburg led – under legally dubious circumstances – to the use …
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