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Nehemiah/Book of Nehemiah

(1,835 words)

Author(s): Koch, Klaus
[German Version] I. The Memoirs and Their Interpolations Until the 15th century, the Hebrew Bible treated the book ascribed to Nehemiah by modern Bible editions ¶ and the canonical book of Ezra (II) as a single work under the name of Ezra (LXX: Esdras β’). The book recounts the reorganization of the province of Judah after the end of the Babylonia


(567 words)

Author(s): Koch, Klaus
[German Version] The Hebrew lexeme “Hebrews,” documented since the 1st century bce, is presumably related linguistically to a term “ḫab/piru/i” or “ʿpr.w,” which was widespread in the ancient Near East in the 2nd millennium. These texts refer to population groups that found asylum in the country in question either as foreign refugees or sometimes as prisoners of war, or that distanced themselves from the resident society; they hired themselves out f…

Daniel, Additions to

(549 words)

Author(s): Koch, Klaus
[German Version] I. The ancient Greek, Syriac, and Latin versions of the book of Daniel offer about half again as much material as the Hebrew/Aramaic version. The major Greek and Latin churches consider these Additions to be canoni¶ …


(1,042 words)

Author(s): Koch, Klaus
[German Version] In the canonical context, the Old Testament creates the impression that the territories adjacent to Israel were dominated by a great god Baal whose orgiastic rituals had, for centuries, tempted Israel to forsake Yahweh and thus to break…

Ezra/Books of Ezra

(4,102 words)

Author(s): Koch, Klaus | Lehnardt, Andreas
[German Version] I. General – II. Cano…

Scheidt, Samuel

(272 words)

Author(s): Koch, Klaus-Peter
[German Version] (baptized Nov 4, 1587, Halle – Mar 24, 1654, Halle), German organist and composer. From 1603 to 1607, he was already organist of the Moritzkirche. Then from 1607/1608 to 1609, he studied organ and composition with J.P. Sweelinck in Amsterdam. When the administrator of the archbishopric of Magdeburg took up his residence in Halle, Scheidt became his court organist in 1609 and Kapellmeister in 1619. When the administrator left the city in 1625 for military duty, Scheidt found himself unemployed. Only from 1628 to 1630 did he find temporary employment as Director musices of the Marienkirche in Halle. After 1638, with the arrival of the new administrator, he returned to his office of Kapellmeister, this time until his death. ¶ His work as a composer was highly diverse, comprising not just organ music ( Tabulatura nova, 3 parts, 1624; the so-called Görlitz Tabulaturbuch, 1650) but also instrumental music ( Ludi musicales, 4 part, 1621–1627; 70 Symphonien, 1644),…

Kingdom of God

(8,569 words)

Author(s): Koch, Klaus | Avemarie, Friedrich | Schröter, Jens | Schwöbel, Christoph
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Early Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Historical Theology and Dogmatics – V. Social Ethics I. Old Testament Although English Bibles have generally used kingdom of God to render Heb. מַלְכּוּת/ malkût and Gk βασιλεία/ basileía with a divine subject (genitive), some modern translators prefer instead a purely functional term such as kingship, without spatial or geographical connotations. Such connotations were definitely implicit in the Hebrew expression, which furthermore is used only in the singular for king…


(7,484 words)


(3,924 words)

Author(s): Thiede, Werner | Koch, Klaus | Hübner, Wolfgang | Veltri, Giuseppe | Kiener, Ronald C. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Biblical – III. Greco-Roman Antiquity – IV. Judaism – V. Practical theology …


(10,035 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Koch, Klaus | Frey, Jörg | Zachhuber, Johannes | Mesch, Walter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. General. The words for time denote in different languages, according to their etymological derivation and symbolic semantic field, different ways of dividing natural and cultural forms of progression and sequences of events into parts separated and distinguished from one another. The German word for time, Zeit, comes from Old High German zīt; “divide (up)”, from the root *dāi, “divide,” and implies the general dividing function of ideas of time, as factors in ordering experience of the world. Different ideas of time thus each express and make possible different experiences of the world. Such divisions of natural and cultural events in the life-world may be hours, days, weeks, months, years and epochs (Aion), also inst…