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Ostia and Porto

(2,182 words)

Author(s): Kockel, Valentin (Augsburg)
Kockel, Valentin (Augsburg) [German version] A. Settlement Development since Antiquity (CT) Since the Imperial period the Tiber delta has pushed more than 3 km into the sea. However, the old coastline is easily discernible by a row of dunes [21]. The canal ( fossa traiana) between the harbour basins and the river (still navigable in the 12th cent.) gradually silted up, but the Trajanic harbour basin remained always visible. The Tiber broke through the loop of the river north of Ostia (O.) during a great flood in September 1577, thereby cutting the mediaeval borgo off from traffic routes…


(807 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Kockel, Valentin (Augsburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Tribus | Caesar | Wine | | Coloniae | Commerce | Oracles | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones (cf. map). City at the mouth of the Tiber, 16 miles from Rome, of the tribus Voturia ( tribus Palatina for freedmen), later regio I (Italia), connected to Rome by the via Ostiensis. According to Liv. 1,33,9, the colony was founded by Ancus Marcius [I 3] when, having deprived Veii of the silva Mesia, he extended his rule to the coast and set up salt refineries there (cf. CIL XIV 433…


(2,166 words)

Author(s): Kockel, Valentin (Augsburg)
Kockel, Valentin (Augsburg) [German version] A. The Excavations in the 18th Century (CT) In contrast to Pompeii, Herculaneum (H.) was buried so deeply and massively that no plundering of the ruins was possible after the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79. The eruption of 1631 increased these layers to a thickness of 25 metres. However, when wells were drilled in the area of the town of Resina (known as Ercolano since 1969), ancient remains repeatedly came to light. The first tunnel excavations were carried out by…


(2,246 words)

Author(s): Gulletta, Maria Ida (Pisa) | Kockel, Valentin (Augsburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Theatre | Villa | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Colonization | Natural catastrophes (Πομπεῖα/ Pompeîa, Πομπήια/ Pompḗia). [German version] I. Location and Population City in Campania at the foot of Vesuvius. P. was a major trading centre thanks to its ideal location at the mouth of the Sarnus (Str. 5,4,8; Plin. HN 3,62) and its rich diversity of valuable products, e.g. oil (oil mills, Cato Agr. 25,3), pumice, wine, garum (a fish sauce, Fish dishes (and seafood); Plin. HN 31,94). According to mythology, P. was founde…


(4,624 words)

Author(s): Kockel, Valentin (Augsburg)
Kockel, Valentin (Augsburg) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) “Many disasters have occurred in the world, but there are few that would have given those living afterwards so much joy”. For many people, Goethe’s dictum in his Italian Journey is still true to this day. From the beginning, the ruins' unparalleled state of preservation and the seemingly direct insight into the daily life of the erstwhile inhabitants have affected every visitor. For this reason Pompeii (P.) has therefore become the symbol of the seemingly close prox…


(647 words)

Author(s): Kockel, Valentin (Augsburg)
Kockel, Valentin (Augsburg) [German version] A. History of the Excavations (CT) In June 1749, a year after the start of investigations in Pompeii, work also began in Stabia/Stabiae (S.) on uncovering the ruins suspected below the surface. Excavations continued on the Colle di Varano above Castellammare di Stabia with varying intensity until 1782, when they were abandoned due to lack of results. Up until that time altogether five villa complexes and parts of an urban structure had been examined on the side …